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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
1.¡c¢ra Ras¢yanaK¢yacikits¢Rules of conduct and behaviour in the society. Regarded as a type of Ras¢yana therapy in ¡yurveda, the term refers to non-pharmacological approach in the form of improved code of conduct, to achieve rejuvenative effects of Ras¢yana like longevity, immunity of the body and improved memory of mind without the use of material Ras¢yana.
2.¡d¢nak¢laK¢yacikits¢One of the two divisons of the year in ¡yurveda, which has been mentioned in the seasonal regimen (§tucary¢). ¡d¢na literally means to take away. It represents the northern solstice i.e. the period from winter to summer solstice. It is the period during which energy/ strength is lost from the body due to increasing heat of sun which imparts hot and dry qualities to living beings. It includes three seasons namely: ¹iºira (cold & dewy season), Vasanta (spring season), Gr¤¾ma (summer season).
3.¡gantujaRoga Nid¢naIt signifies the diseases which have an external cause. It refers to the disorders where the painful condition is first produced and is later followed by the disturbance in Do¾a-Dh¢tu equilibrium. Disorders due to injury, poisoning, parasites and germs are categorised under it.
4.¡h¢ra K¢yacikits¢The term refers to food in ¡yurveda.Whatever food is eaten or drunk, which not only provides nutrition but satisfies mind and soul, has been mentioned as ¡h¢ra. Regarded as one of the three sub-pillars of healthy living (Upastambha), ¡h¢ra has been given prime importance in ¡yurveda. ¡yurveda believes “we are what we eat and all the diseases are also the outcome of faulty food habits.' ¡h¢ra has been furthur classified into two types: wholesome diet (Hita ¡h¢ra) and unwholesome diet (Ahita ¡h¢ra).“
5.¡k¢ºa Pad¢rtha Vij®¢na Free Open Space. ¡k¢ºa is regarded as the fifth and most subtle of the five eternal elements or the Pa®camah¢bh¦ta. It is the universal organising principle of space and is thus represented through spaces in human body viz. mouth, nose, respiratory tract etc. Since space is the medium for transmission of sound waves, ¡k¢ºa is characterised by dominant feature of sound (¹abda) and ears are regarded as the sense organs which predominantly have akasa mahabhuta.
6.¡locaka Pitta ¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the five subtypes of Pitta. It is located in the eyes and governs the vision, thus enabling one to perceive the forms of objects clearly and meaningfully.
7.¡m¢ºaya Racan¢¹ ¢r¤ra Literally the term means the site or receptacle of undigested food (¡ma). The term is used to refer to organs of digestion between navel (N¢bhi) and the breast (Stana). Anatomically, it can be regarded as stomach with upper part of small intestine (duodenum).
8.¡maRoga Nid¢naLiterally the term means unripe, uncooked or immature. In ¡yurveda, it is a generic term used to indicate toxic metabolic residue which is the result of undigested food due to impaired (weak or irregular) Agni. ¡ma is regarded as the root cause of gastro-intestinal as well as systemic disorders.
9.¡mayaRoga Nid¢naLiterally the term means “arising due to ¡ma'. It is used as a synonym of disease in general as ¡ma is the most common cause of all the disorders. See also Vy¢dhi, Gada.“
10.¡paª Pad¢rtha Vij®¢na The element water. One of the five eternal elements (Pa®camah¢bh¦ta), ¡paª is the universal organising principle of fluidity that characterizes change and movement of all kinds. It is the element without stability, which has dominant characterstic feature of taste (Rasa). Since the element attributes to taste, tongue is regarded as the sense organ which predominantly contains this element. The element is represented through body fluids e.g. blood & lymph.
11.¡ptaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Literally means “reached' or “obtained'. In ¡yurveda, the term refers to a credible authority or person free from prejudice and emotional influence, the one who tells us about the objects exactly as they are. Such persons are regarded as trustworthy and their words are considered a source of valid knowledge.
12.¡ptopadeºaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na The term refers to instructions, utterances or communications of the credible persons (¡pta). Regarded as one of the sources of valid knowledge (Pram¢´a) in ¡yurveda, the classical texts also represent a form of ¡ptopadeºa. It is the first among the methods to be employed to ascertain the nature and source of a disease.
13.¡rogyaK¢yacikits¢ Literally the term stands for “a state of diseaselessness'. Although used as a synonym of healthful state, health is not merely absence of disease. ¡rogya can be described as condition prior to onset of disease & after the cure of disease.The condition provides practical framework in diagnosis, prognosis, medication and nursing. See Sv¢stha also.
14.¡rtava¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for menstrual blood. Regarded as an Upadh¢tu of Rakta, the term has been further subclassified into Antaªpu¾pa (ova or egg for fertilisation) and the Bahiªpu¾pa (monthly blood discharge).
15.¡ºaya¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Seat, receptacle or dwelling place. It refers to cavities or visceras in the body where the Do¾a (humors), Dh¢tu (body constituents) and Mala (waste products) are contained. These are seven in males and eight in females. Each ¡ºaya is the dwelling place of particular body component and represents a paticular organ as suggested by name e.g.V¢t¢ºaya (large intestine), Pitt¢ºaya (liver & upper part of small intestine), Rakt¢ºaya (heart), ¡m¢ºaya (stomach), Agn¢ºaya (pancreas), Pakv¢ºaya (ceacum) & Garbh¢ºaya (uterus) in females.
16.¡ºcyotana¹¢l¢kya/ K¢yacikits¢ One of the eye therapies mentioned in ¡yurveda, it refers to administration of eye drops. Mostly juices of herbs (Svarasa) are used for. Nature & dose of drugs used depends upon Do¾a vitiation.
17.¡sana Svasthav ¨tta Literally means 'a seat' , the term is specifically used to refer to posture or steady physical position of the body for prolonged meditation.Third and most well known limb of classical A¾°¢¬ga Yoga, ¡sana refers to physical posture of Yoga. It is regarded as a way in which one can experience unity of mind and body, in harmony with the nature. Each ¡sana has a unique therapeutic value and opens a specific energy channel. ¡yurveda regards ¡sana as fixed physical forms, having specific therapeutic as well as preventive aspects that increase or decrease Do¾a by themselves.
18.¡sava-Ari¾°aBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Medicated liquors containing self generated alcohol. The formulations are prepared by placing the drugs (juices or decoction) mixed with sweetening agents (honey/jaggery) and fermenting agents like flower of Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz. in specific proportions in earthen jars for a specific period of time & thus subjecting the drugs to fermentation.While ¡savas are prepared through fermentation of raw drugs or the juices, the Ari¾°as are prepared through fermentation of decoction of the drugs. These fermented formulations contain permissible amounts of alcohol and have a prolonged shelf life. They improve digestive fire and are easily absorbed.
19.¡sth¢pana BastiK¢yacikits¢ Medicated decoction based cleansing enemas or intrarectals. Regarded as a part of Pa®acaKarma therapy in ¡yurveda, it involves administration of decoctions of the drugs through anal orifice.The therapeutic procedure has more of cleansing value, hence needs not to be retained for longer time in the body than fortyeight minutes. Used for abdominal as well as nervine disorders of V¢ta. Also known as Niruha Basti. See Basti also.
20.¡yuªPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Literally meaning duration or span of life, the term specifically refers to life. According to ¡yurveda, ¡yuª is a complex four dimensional balanced union of the body (¹¢r¤ra), body's senses (Indriya), mind (Satva) and the spirit (¡tm¢) in a harmonised and co-ordinated manner. Thus the term includes not only physical, but the mental aspects as well.
21.¡yurveda Sa¼hit¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term composed of two words - ¡yuª (Life) & Veda (knowledge). Literally it means 'science of life'. It is a holistic, natural and most ancient system of healthcare that originated in India about five thousand years ago. Regarded as an Upaveda of Atharva Veda, it is the only system of medicine that deals with preventive as well as curative aspects. Its aim is to provide guidance regarding food and lifestyle so that healthy people can stay healthy and prescription of medicines for the diseased to improve their health. It has a vivid descripton of beneficial (Hita), non-beneficial (Ahita), happy (Sukha) & unhappy (Dukha) aspects of life.
22.Abhya¬ga K¢yacikits¢ A type of external oleation that involves smooth, synchronised, gentle but firm massage or rubbing of body parts with simple or medicated oils in the direction of hair growth. The process involves specific hand movements for specific body parts. Included as a detail in personal hygiene (Svasthav¨tta), daily or periodical massage not only has regional benefits but helps to increase circulation, decrease dryness and balance the vitiated Do¾a. See also Udvartana.
23.AgadaK¢yacikits¢ In general, the term “Gada' means disease, thus “A-gada' means freedom from disease. Agada indicates drugs or medicine. Specifically the term is used for the “Anti-dotes' or the drugs which counteract the effect of poisons.
24.Agada Ta¼traA¾°¢¬ga-¡yurveda The term refers to food in ¡yurveda.Whatever food is eaten or drunk, which not only provides nutrition but satisfies mind and soul, has been mentioned as ¡h¢ra. Regarded as one of the three sub-pillars of healthy living (Upastambha), ¡h¢ra has been given prime importance in ¡yurveda. ¡yurveda believes “we are what we eat and all the diseases are also the outcome of faulty food habits.' ¡h¢ra has been furthur classified into two types: wholesome diet (Hita ¡h¢ra) and unwholesome diet (Ahita ¡h¢ra).“
25.AgniK¢yacikits¢ Literally the term stands for fire. It is the essential form of fire and heat in the body. It kindles all the biological processes of life. Responsible for generation of body heat, temperature, vision and digestion, it forms the basis of digestive system. Its function is transformation, absorption and elimination and is imperative to digestion and metabolism. Agni is of thirteen types: one Ja°har¢gni, five Bh¦t¢gnis & seven Dh¢tv¢gnis.
26.Agnikarma¹alya Therapeutic thermal cauterisation. Specifically, AgniKarma refers to burning, scalding or scarring of organic tisssue by means of a hot iron rod (Dagdhaºal¢k¢) or similar appliances. Regarded as the best parasurgical procedure in ancient ¡yurvedika surgery, it is used as a final resort to treatment of disorders which are incurable with herbal medicine or surgery. Diseases treated with AgniKarma disappear & do not recur.
27.Agni Mah¢bh¦taPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Literally represents fire. One of the five eternal elements i.e; the Pa®camah¢bh¦ta, Agni is the universal force in nature that produces heat and radiates light.The element is the organizing principle which controls all kinds of conversions or transformations, and is characterised by dominant feature of Vision (R¦pa). Eyes are regarded as the sense organs.
28.Aj¤r´aK¢yacikits¢ Regarded as a gastro-intestinal disorder, the term refers to the state of Indigestion. A sequel of weak digestive fire (Ja°har¢gni), it is a source of many other abdominal disorders.
29.Ak¾itarpa´a ¹¢l¢kya/ K¢ya Cikits¢ Literally means nourishment (Tarpa´a) to the eyes (Netra). This is a special treatment in which the eyes are bathed in pure or medicated fluids (clarified butter/oil/decoction). For this purpose after massage, organic dough rings made of blackgram are carefully placed around the orbital cavity. Medicated Gh¨ta (clarified butter) is kept in hot water and its supernatant when tepid, is poured into the dough ring and retained for 15-20 minutes. Eyes are alternatively opened and closed while immersed in the Gh¨ta. The oil bath for the eyes relieves tension and fatigue, improves eyesight, balances the nervous system, and smoothes away wrinkles while gently eliminating toxins and impurities. It has also been known to relieve eye strain from constant glaring into the computer or television screen, simple myopia as well as more serious eye diseases.
30.AmlaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na One of the six tastes (½a² Rasas). In ¡yurveda, it refers to the sour taste. It has been described as healing and stimulant, V¢ta pacifying, cardiotonic or good for heart (H¨daya), appetizer and digestive but causing heartburn if taken in excess. See also Rasa.
31.AmlapittaK¢yacikits¢ A gastro-intestinal disorder in which vitiated Pitta turns acrid and causes inflammation of gastric mucosa. Characterised by loss of appetite, heartburn, eructations and giddiness, the disease can be regarded as hyperacidity or dyspepsia.
32.A¼gulaRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra See A¼guli
33.A¼guliRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra A type of measurement used in ancient times. It denotes measurement of a finger's width.
34.A®janaK¢yacikits¢ One of the therapies for eye mentioned in ¡yurveda, it refers to application of black pigments in the form of powder or ointment into the eyes.
35.Antaª Parim¢rjanaK¢yacikits¢ The term refers to internal therapeutics in ¡yurveda. It consists of two broad categories - Sa¼ºodhana (purificatory therapy) & Sa¼ºodhana (palliative therapy). Purificatory therapies includes the Pa®caKarma while palliative therapy involves treatment through drugs, diet and lifestyle regimens according to the nature of disease. See B¢hya Parim¢rjana also.
36.AnuPad¢rtha Vij®¢na A common prefix of Sa¼sk¨ta used frequently in ¡yurveda which means after, near to or subordinate to.
37.AnulomanaDravyagu´a Literally the term stands for sending or putting to right direction. One of the pharmacological actions of the ¡yurvedika drugs. It signifies the herbs which facilitate elimination of waste products (Mala) through the natural outlets. Such drugs possess the capacity to relieve flatulence and mild constipation as well. It includes aromatic and carminative herbs like Har¤taki (Terminalia chebula Retz.).
38.Anum¢naPad¢rtha Vij®¢na One of the Pram¢´a (source of valid knowledge) mentioned in ¡yurveda, Anum¢na refers to inferential or deduced knowledge dependent on rational or balanced thinking (Yukti) e.g; deduction of the state of digestive fire (Ja°har¢gni) from individual's capacity to digest food.
39.Anup¢naK¢yacikits¢ A fluid vehicle prescribed to be taken with or soon after the medicine. The purpose is to facilitate the absorption or assimilation of the drug or to increase efficacy of the drug. Different Anup¢nas according to the disease & nature of the main drug have been mentioned in the ancient texts. Main vehicles are honey, clarified butter, buttermilk and juices of certain herbs. Can also be regarded as post-prandial drink.
40.AnupaºayaRoga Nid¢na Fourth phase of ¡yurvedika diagnostic process (Pa®canid¢na). It refers to diet, drugs or regimens which aggravate the condition of the patient and is contrary to Upaºaya. Employed to determine the hidden sign & symptoms, Anupaºaya is used for diffrential diagnosis and to ascertain the precise nature and magnitude of a disease. For example, in case of rheumatoid arthritis (¡mav¢ta), application of oils (Snehana) is Anupaºaya & aggravates the condition, but it relieves Arthritis (Sa¼dhiv¢ta) and is regarded as Upaºaya for that. See Upaºaya also.
41.AnurasaDravyagu´a Secondary taste. It refers to the taste which manifests slightly or manifests at the end, after the main Rasa. For example sour taste of amalki(Indian gooseberry) is its “Rasa', but the sweet taste perceived at the end is the “Anurasa'. The secondary taste or the Anurasa may be present in the fresh state of substance but disappears in dry state. See Rasa also.
42.Anuv¢sana BastiK¢yacikits¢ One of the Bastis (Intra-rectal therapies) mentioned in ¡yurveda. Anuv¢sana refers to unctous (oily) medicated enemas/intrarectals that must be retained in the body for a minimum of nine hours to produce desired therapeutic effects. It nourishes and moistens the dry tissues and organs and is useful in V¢ta disorders.
43.Ap¢na¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the five subtypes of V¢ta, the term literally means downward moving air. Since it is centered in large intestine, which is the main site of V¢ta, it supports and controls all the other subtypes. It governs the downward moving impulses of defaecation, urination and ovulation etc.
44.Ap¢na V¢yu¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Flatus. Regarded as one of the non-suppressible urges, the term is specifically used for the waste bodily wind which is expelled through lower portion of body i.e. anus.
45.AparigrahaMaulika Siddh¢nta The fifth Yama. Parigraha means to take, procure, to possess or to seize and “A' is prefix for non in Sa¼sk¨ta. Aprigraha, therefore, means non hoarding. It refers to avoidance of unnecessary acquisition of objects not essential for mantaining spiritual study.
46.Apatarpa´aK¢yacikits¢ One of the two commonly used ¡yurvedika treatments, the term is used for reducing or detoxifying therapy. It is designed for reducing the body bulk. Involves a series of dietary as well as other regimens that produce lightness e.g; fasting, exercises, exposure to sunlight & administration of drugs. It includes three of the six elementary therapies (Upakrama), namely La¼ghana (lightening), Ruk¾a´a (drying) and Svedava (sudation). All these have one effect in common, i.e. to produce lightness. See Sa¼tarpa´a also.
47.ApathyaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na One of the Pram¢´a (source of valid knowledge) mentioned in ¡yurveda, Anum¢na refers to inferential or deduced knowledge dependent on rational or balanced thinking (Yukti) e.g; deduction of the state of digestive fire (Ja°har¢gni) from individual's capacity to digest food.
48.ApatyaKaum¢ra Bh¨tya Offspring, child or descendant.
49.Ari¾°aPad¢rtha Vij®¢na The term signifies unfavourable symptoms that predict death. Ari¾°a specific to different diseases have been mentioned. Regarded as clinic discipline in ¡yurveda (Ari¾°a Vij®¢na), its knowledge helps the physician to ascertain the possibility of cure of a disease. See ¡sava Ari¾°a also.
50.Arka Dravyagu´a Sa¼sk¨ta name for the medicinal plant Calotropis procera Dryand
51.ArkaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ A pharmaceutical preparation of volatile drugs. The term refers to distilled or concerntrated aromatic waters used both in ¡yurveda & Un¢n¤ medicine. It is prepared by distillation of drugs which have been soaked in water for at least twenty four hours. Such preparations can be preserved for longer periods of time than infusions.
52.ArthaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Literally the term refers to the meaning of a word or phrase, i.e; final essence of any thought. Specifically, it stands for goal, purpose or the object of pursuit, which is desired, desirable and satisfies the acquiring tendency of an individual. Also represents material prosperity as one of the four vital accomplishments of human life.
53.A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurvedaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na The eight branches/disciplines of ¡yurveda are collectively named as A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda. These are: K¢yacikits¢ (internal medicine), Kaum¢ra Bh¨tya (paediatrics), Bh¦ta Vidy¢ (psychiatry), ¹¢l¢kya (otorhinolaryngology and ophthalmology), ¹alya (surgery), Agada Ta¼tra (toxicology), Ras¢yana (Geriatrics) & V¢j¤kara´a (eugenics and aphrodisiacs).
54.A¾°¢¬ga H¨dayaSa¼hit¢ One of the three major treatises of Indian medicine, a classical text of seventh century by V¢gabatta. It is regarded as a concise version of A¾°¢¬ga Sa¬graha, which is predominently based on Caraka and Suºruta Sa¼hit¢. The text represents scientific advancements over the ancient treatises and provides a complete description of ¡yurveda in itself.
55.A¾°avargaDravyagu´a A group of eight rare medicinal herb roots which are alterative and nutritive in nature. They promote health and are beneficial in general debility due to chronic wasting disorders.These include: J¤vaka, §¾abhaka, Med¢, Mah¢med¢, §ddhi, V¨ddhi, K¢kol¤ & K¾¤rak¢kol¤. Most of the drugs of the group are not available now a day. Substitutes (Pratinidh¤ Dravya) are used in place of such drugs. Given with warm milk and Gh¨ta as an adjuvant, group is an ingredient of popularly used Avleha, Cyavanapr¢ºa.
56.A¾°avidha Par¤k¾¢Roga Nid¢na One of the types of Rog¤ Par¤k¾¢, the term literally means eight fold methods of examination. These includes the examination of N¢å¤ (pulse), Mala (stool), M¦tra (urine), Jihv¢ (tongue), ¹abda (voice), Sparºa (skin), D¨k (vision) and ¡k¨ti (appearance). It gives an idea about the patient's general condition and the type of illness. Also hepful to analyze the prognosis of disorder.
57.Asthi Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Bone tissue. One of the seven bodily components (Dh¢tus), it is said to be derived from fat (Med¢) & generative of bone marrow (Majj¢). Being the hardest structure, it provides support, shape and protection to human body, apart from nourishing the bone marrow.
58.Au¾adhi K¢yacikits¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for drugs with therapeutic value. Specifically, the term is used for therapeutic modalities, remedies and the treatment. It signifies all the healing methods including rituals and the invocations which are conducive to health. One of the three pillars of ¡yurveda (Tris¦tra), Au¾adh¤ deals with the managment of the disorders. See Bhe¾aja also.
59.Avag¢hana K¢yacikits¢ A type of wet fomentation (Drava Sveda), which involves soaking the affected part in a container filled with warm medicated fluids. Comparable to tub bath, it promotes the circulation, calms the nerves, strengthens the muscles and relieves the pain and stiffness. It is specifically used for V¢ta disorders, haemorrhoids, dysuria and other painful conditions. See Drava Sveda also.
60.Avalambaka KaphaKriy¢ ¹¢r¤ra One of the five subtypes of Kapha, Avalambaka is located in the heart and lung region and performs the vital functions of nourishing, lubricating and protecting both the structures.
61.Avaleha Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Medicinal preparation meant to be licked or lapped up by the tongue. It has consistency of thick paste and is prepared by boiling and reducing the strained decoction to desired consistency and adding sugar or jaggery to it. Easily assimilable, Cyavanapr¢ºa is the most popularly used Avaleha.
1.B¢hya Parim¢rjanaK¢yacikits¢ External cleansing therapies. Treatment procedures through external purificatory measures. It includes several therapeutic procedures i.e. methods of external oleation e.g. Abhya¬ga, sudation (Svedana) and medicated gargles (Ga´²¦¾a).
2.Bala¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for strength. In ¡yurveda, the term signifies not only the physical strength, but includes the vibrant immunity, which is capable of acting without being acknowledged. It has been further classified into three types - natural (Sahaja Bala), seasonal (K¢laja Bala) and aquired (Yuktik¨ta Bala).
3.BalyaDravyagu´a Means the one that promotes strength. The term signifies pharmacological property of a drug. It is used for the energizers that provide strength to the body. Apart from increasing muscular strength and tone i.e; the physical capacity, they increase the immunity i.e; ability to resist diseases.
4.Ba¼dha ¹alya Ta¼tra Literally meaning bandage. In ¡yurveda, the term specifically refers to the knots or the bandages, which are regarded as a very important aspects of surgery (¹alyata¼tra). Fifteen different types of bandages pertaining to different body parts and different areas have been mentioned.
5.BastiRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Sa¼sk¨ta term for urinary bladder. According to ¡yurveda, it is a vital part (Marma).
6.BastiK¢yacikits¢ Literally meaning the urinary bladder, Basti refers to therapeutic administration of medications through rectal, vaginal or uretheral routes. It has been named so as in ancient times, bladder of large animals like goat and cow were used as enema bags for its administration. Most important component of Pa®acaKarma therapy, it is the best curative & palliative procedure for V¢ta disorders. Regarded as half or sometimes the whole of the therapy, the procedure has rejuvenative (health promoting) value as well.
7.Bh¢nup¢kaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Bh¢nu stands for sun, P¢ka refers to processing. The term, therefore, refers to processing of drugs in the sunlight. It is basically the process of evaporating the moisture/water content of the drugs by exposure to sun. Specifically mentioned for preparation of Loha Bhasma.
8.Bh¢van¢ Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Addition of fluids (decoction/juices) to the powdered drugs (plant or mineral origin) followed by trituration of the drugs till the fluid dries up.Commonest procedure during preparation of the formulations, it potentiates the action of original drugs. Generally, the process is repeated several times, so that the drug aquires active principles of the incorporated fluids.
9.Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics. The term “Bhaishajya' means medicine and “Kalpan¢' means form. It is that branch of ¡yurveda which deals with pharmaceutical preparation of different forms of medicine e.g. syrup, tablet, powder etc.
10.Bhasma Rasaº¢stra Literally the term stands for holy ash. In ¡yurveda, the term signifies alkaline ashes derived from organic (plant and animal) as well as inorganic (mineral & metallic) substances. Commonly, the term refers to calcined or incinerated form of mineral and metallic substances, prepared through elaborate processess of ¹odhana and M¢ra´a. Water soluble Bhasmas of plants are are called as K¾ara. Bhasmas are used widely as these are available at all the times, can be preserved for longer periods and are effective in small doses. They are intended for internal use.
11.BhedaRoga Nid¢na Literally means type, divison, variety or distinction, the term describes the types of a disease in ¡yurveda. It is also regarded as developmental stage of an untreated disorder; and refers to sixth stage of disease manifestation, characterised by complications and aggravation into chronicity.
12.BhedanaDravyagu´a Literally, the term means breaking through or piercing. One of the pharmacological actions of the ¡yurvedika drugs, the term is used to denote purgatives like Picrorhiza kurroa, which cause forcible expulsion of feaces by breaking down the hardened stool.
13.Bhedana¹alya Ta¼tra One of the eight surgical procedures (¹astra Karma) in ¡yurveda. It signifies the incision which is used to achieve effective drainage or exposure of underlying structures to let the contents out. Used for treatment of suppurative disorders which require drainage e.g. an abscess (Vidradhi).
14.Bodhaka Kapha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Literally means “the awakener' or the one who catalyzes knowledge. It is one of thesub-types of Kapha that is located in the tongue and enables perception of taste.
15.B¨ha¼´aK¢yacikits¢ Nourishing therapies in ¡yurveda. One of the six preparatory treatments (Upakrama) which promote bulk and nourishment of the body. It consists of administration of certain drugs or food articles which are Balya (strength promoting) in nature alongwith prescription of regimens like sleep, bath, gentle massage and administration of certain medicated oil enemas (Anuv¢sana Basti). Predominently used for V¢ta disorders. Can be regarded as a palliative therapy.
16.B¨hattray¤Sa¼hit¢ The three most ancient scriptures of ¡yurveda i.e. Caraka Sa¼hit¢, Suºruta Sa¼hit¢ and A¾°¢¬ga H¨daya are collectively referred to as B¨hattray¤ or the three supreme or paramount texts. These form the most important database of ¡yurvedika medicine at present. The treatises represent systemization of medical science of ¡yurveda upto seventh centuary A.D. Each of the texts describes not only the theoretical & philosphical basis of ¡yurveda, but also the diagnosis, therapy as well as preparation of numerous curative formulations.
17.Bhr¢jaka Pitta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the subtypes of Pitta that is located in the skin and governs lusture, complexion & body's temperature by keeping secreations from sweat and sebaceous glands of the skin active.
18.BhramaRoga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term meaning an illusion, deceit or wrong perception. Regarded as a mental disorder in ¡yurveda, it refers to false knowledge or mistake e.g. regarding a rope as snake.
19.Bh¦t¢gni¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Elemental fire. The form of Agni at molecular level. It is of five types corresponding to each of Pa®camah¢bh¦ta, responsible for transformation of respective element in the dietary articles, thus helping in molecular metabolism. Can be regarded as digestive enzymes.
20.Bh¦ta Vidy¢A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda One of the eight branches of ¡yurveda which classically deals with pacification of demons and ghosts through Yogika and divine therapies like Ma¼tra Cikits¢, Pr¢´¢yama and ¹¢ntiKarma etc. Since the symptoms are psychological and the treatments are also rational, it can be regarded as ¡yurvedika psychiatry in modern era.
21.BrahmacaryaSvasthav¨tta One of the three leading pillars of healthy living (Upastambha) and fourth part of Yama in A¾°¢¬ga yoga, it not only includes sexual restraint or abstinence but intelligent handling of sexual energy. It is the first ¡ºrama i.e.department of spiritual life.
22.Brahma M¦h¦rtaSvasthav¨tta Pre-dawn hours. It is the period roughly 1.5 hours or ninety minutes before sunrise. ¡yurveda regards it is auspicious to arise in this hour. Known as God's hour, it is regarded as most conducive for meditation and to aquire supreme knowledge and eternal hapiness.
23.BuddhiPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term derived from ''Buddha', which means - to know. Literally the term means intellect. It is the faculty of wisdom, intelligence and discrimination, refers to intellect of living beings, that by which one knows or is aware. It is the ultimate decision maker, a decisive state which determines distinction between the things.
1.Cakra Svasthav¨tta Sa¼sk¨ta term for wheel or a disk. In ¡yurveda, it signifies the seven basic energy centres within the body of which ones consciousness is composed. In physical body the centres correspond to nervous system or glands situated along the spinal cord from base to head. These are sacred energy gateways which govern subtle psychosomatic aspect of inner being. Useful in Yoga and meditation, these have qualities of re-establishing the inner balance and restoring the health form.
2.Cak¾u Pad¢rtha Vij®¢na Sa¼sk¨ta synonym for eye, the sense organ of vision. Regarded as faculty of sight, light and clearness, its other synonyms are Ak¾i, Nayana & Netra.
3.Cak¾u¾yaDravyagu´a Literally the term signifies drugs which are Ras¢yana for the eyes (beneficial for the eyes). The term is used for the drugs which provide health and longevity to the eyes and support the health of eye.
4.CarakaSa¼hit¢ The original commentator on Caraka Sa¼hit¢, considered to be father of ¡yurvedika medicine.
5.Caraka Sa¼hit¢Sa¼hit¢ It is the most ancient and most authoritative text of ¡yurveda available today. Originally in Sa¼sk¨ta and mostly in verse form, the text predominently deals with the treatments through internal and external applications of medicine. It explains the logic and philosphy on which ¡yurvedika system of medicine is based. It remains the most authentic ¡yurvedika text on internal medicine till date.
6.Catu¾p¢daSa¼hit¢ Four props or parts of medical practice. The term signifies four essential ingredients of successful medical management. These include: Bhi¾aka (physician), Dravya (drugs,diet and all other medical facilities needed in the treatment),Upasth¢t¢ (attendent or nursing personnel) & Rog¤ (Patient). A meaningful and effective co-operation of these four aspects of therapeutics plays an important role in successful management of the disorder.
7.Cetan¢Pad¢rtha Vij®¢na Derived from the root “Citta', means to perceive or understand. The term signifies the individualised consciousness or intelligence i.e. the means by which one becomes aware of oneself and the things around. Heart is regarded as principle seat of consciousness (Cetan¢ Sth¢na) in ¡yurveda.
8.ChardiRoga Nid¢na Regarded as a disorder in ¡yurveda, the term refers to vomiting due to vitiation of Do¾a or unpleasent sensory experience. In it especially upward moving Ud¢nav¢yu is vitiated.
9.ChedanaDravyagu´a Literally the term means to cut away. One of the pharmacological actions of ¡yurvedika drugs, it refers to the herbs which actively draw out the Do¾a by scraping them from the tissues. For example, Marica (fruit of black pepper)
10.Chedana¹alya Ta¼tra Indicates excision. One of the eight surgical procedures (¹astra Karma). A procedure whereby a part or whole of the limb or body structure is cut off from the parent. It is employed for non-suppurative, hard, fixed and necrotising tissue lesions.
11.Cikits¢K¢ya Cikits¢ Derived from the root 'Ki° Rog¢pnayane', it refers to measures related to cure and relief from disease. Regarded as a synonym of treatment or therapies, it comprises of measures dealing with eradication of causative factors as well as treatment of the disorders. The treatment in ¡yurveda is widest and most comprehensive among all other systems of medicine. Principally, it is classified into three broad categories namely - Sa¼ºodhana (purificatory therapies), Sa¼ºamana (palliative therapies) and Nid¢naparivarjana (elimination of cause).
12.CittaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Subconscious mind. It is the storehouse of memory, regarded as the seat of three fold mental faculties comprising of the Buddh¤ (intellect), Mana (mind) and the Aha¼k¢ra (egoism).
13.C¦r´a Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Literally the term stands for powder. It signifies fine powder of a drug or fine mixture of the drugs. Commonly used form of ¡yurvedika drugs, it retains potency for one year if well preserved.
1.Daivavy¢p¢ºraya Cikits¢ (Daiv¤ Cikits¢)K¢ya Cikits¢ One of the three major methods of treatment. Divine treatment is advised for disorders which were believed to be caused by sinful acts and could not be ascribed to any physical or mental cause, e.g. Apasm¢ra (epilepsy) and Unm¢da (psychological disorder). The treatment involves incantations (Ma¼tra), wearing of precious stones (Ma´i/ Ratana) & sacrifices, all of which are intended to secure divine influence in order to eliminate disease.
2.Daºam¦la K¢ya Cikits¢ Literally means ten roots. Traditional combination of the root barks of ten potent herbs taken in equal amount. The drugs have more or less similar therapeutic action. The group includes roots of Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb., Gmelina arborea Roxb., Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Venten, clerodendrum multiflorum (Burm.f.) Kuntze Syn.: C. phlomoides Linn. / Premna integrifolia Linn. / Premna mucronata Roxb., Stereospermum chelonoides (Linn. F.) DC. Syn.: S. suaveolens (Roxb.) DC., and roots of Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC, Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv. ex DC., Solanum indicum Linn., Solanum surattense Burm. and Tribulus terrestris. Mentioned as ¹othahara Mah¢ka¾¢ya in ancient texts, the group has anti-inflammatory action and is effective in K¢sa(bronchitis),(Sandhigatav¢ta) arthiritis , ¹iras¦la( headache ) , Jvra (fever) , Dh¢tuk¾aya ( weakness ), Tandra (drowsiness) and digestive problems.
3.Daºavidha Par¤k¾¢Roga Nid¢na Ten-fold ¡yurvedika diagnosis of the patient. It is one of the many criterions of diagnosis that are mentioned in Ayurveda. It includes the physician's judgement regarding the patient as a whole, his constitution (Prak¨ti), Do¾ika vititation (Vik¨ti), quality of the tissues (S¢ra), compactness of the body (Sa¼hanana), general stature and physical proportionality (Pram¢´a ), physical strength (Vy¢y¢ma ¹akti) , adaptability (S¢tmya), emotional balance (Sattva), digestive capacity (¡h¢ra ¹akti), rate of ageing (Vaya).
4.Dhaman¤Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Literally the term stands for the blowing pipes. According to ¡yurveda, it refers to the vascular structures involved in transportation of nourishing substances to all parts of the body by action of Vy¢na V¢yu. The movement of fluids through these hollow tubes results in the blowing sound and thus the name. They originate from the region of the umblicus and are twenty four in number.
5.Dhanvantar¤Sa¼hit¢ Physician of the Gods. Regarded as founder of ¡yurveda, he is re-incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu, who emerged at the time of churning of ocean by Deva and Asura or demons, with a pot containing ambrosia (rejuvenating nectar/elixir of immortality).
6.Dh¢tu¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Literally the term means “that which supports, holds and binds togeather.' In ¡yurvedika physiology, the term refers to bodily constituents (tissues) which form the pillars of the body.These are the means of nourishment and growth and responsible for anatomical architecture of the body. They provide support to body as well as mind. Seven in number, these include: Rasa (plasma/lymph), Rakta (blood), M¢¼sa (flesh), Med¢ (fat/adipose tissue), Asthi (bones), Majj¢ (bone marrow) and ¹ukra( semen/sperm) . Each Dh¢tu is substrate for formation of next Dh¢tu i.e. precursor of next Dh¢tu.
7.Dh¢tuRasaº¢stra Literally the term means “that which supports, holds and binds together.' It refers to the metals used as drugs in ¡yurvedika pharmaceuticals.
8.Dh¢tv¢gni¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Special digestive agencies for bodily tissue. It is the specific constituent fire of each Dh¢tu which is responsible for its metabolism and transformation into other Dh¢tu. The entire array of tissue metabolism is dependent on it which inturn is dependent on Ja°har¢gni.
9.Dh¤Roga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for acquisition of knowledge. One of the aspects of mind power, it refers to the capacity to learn or aquire knowledge. It indicates the inner reasoning, initial learning or understading and therefore signifies immediate or working memory. Loss of Dh¤ alongwith the two other aspects of mind power, i.e. Dh¨ti and Sm¨ti is regarded as an important cause of diseases in ¡yurveda. See Dh¨ti, Sm¨ti and Praj®¢par¢dha also.
10.Dh¨tiRoga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for the retention capacity or the power to retain what has been learned. It is the processing of the new knowledge within the mind and brain that results in memory that can be retrieved later. It is the capacity of mind to store knowledge for future reference.
11.Dh¦map¢na K¢ya Cikits¢/ ¹¢l¢kya Ta¼tra Inhalation of medicated smoke. The therapy is predominently used as treatment procedure especially in the ¹¢l¢kya Ta¼tra. Selected drugs are powdered, made into suppository, smeared with Gh¨ta/oil, put in a dry cylinder and then ignited. The process involves inhalation of fumes through nostrils and exhalation through mouth. It has been mentioned as post therapeutic procedure for Vamana and Nasya.
12.Dh¦panaK¢ya Cikits¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for fumigation. The therapy involves burning a combination of drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin at a place to release medicated fumes. The therapy is aimed at refreshing and sterlising the air for curative and prophylactic purposes. Also used for treatment of wounds and ulcers.
13.D¤panaDravyagu´a One of the pharmacological actions of the ¡yurvedika drugs. It signifies drugs or natural substances that enkindle the digestive fire and thus augment the appetite. The drugs indirectly help in digestion of food. For example,ginger, pepper etc.
14.Dinacary¢Svasthav¨tta Sa¼sk¨ta term for daily routine. It refers to the wholesome daily routine (day to day conduct) mentioned in ancient ¡yurvedika texts, that needs to be followed for the sustenance of a healthful living, which is one of the objective of ¡yurveda. It signifies the activities of the individual from morning to night.
15.Do¾a¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Literally the term signifies “the corrupting agent', or “vitiating factor'. In context of ¡yurveda, these are the bioenergetic forces of the body which govern the entire biological process of the living organism, i.e. regulate all the physical and psychological behaviour. These are the bodily humors which are found in unique proporton in every individual determining the unique constitution (Prak¨ti). In state of natural balance, these function as pillars of positive health. However, these have inherent tendency to get vitiated primarily and further vitiate the bodily tissues to result in manifestation of the disease. These are regarded as of two types: ¹¢r¤rika (Physical) & M¢nasika (Mental). ¹¢r¤rika, commonly known as Trido¾a, include V¢ta, Pitta & Kapha while M¢nasika include Raja & Tama.
16.DravaDravyagu´a Literally means fluid, the term indicates one of the twenty properties of matter identified in ¡yurvedika pharmacology, which combats the dryness of the body.
17.Drava Sveda K¢ya Cikits¢ Sudation through medicated liquids. It is used in patients with V¢ta-Pitta predominance. The process is carried out either by keeping the affected part in a container filled with warm medicated liquids (Avag¢hana) or pouring the warm medicated liquids over the affected area (Pari¾eka).
18.DravyaK¢ya Cikits¢ Literally meaning “substance', the term is specifically used for the drugs; i.e. substances employed as medicine in ¡yurveda, as according to ¡yurveda, there is no substance in the world which can not be employed as medicine. It has been mentioned as one of the four pods of treatment (Catu¾p¢da) in ancient texts.
19.DravyaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Literally meaning “substance'; the term is regarded as the substances which are foundations of quality (Gu´a) and action (Karma). According to ¡yurvedika philosophy, the entire universe is primarily made of nine eternal substances, i.e. K¢ra´a Dravya which include Pa®camah¢bh¦ta, ¡tm¢ (Soul), Mana (Mind), K¢la (Time) and Diº¢ (Space).
20.Dravyagu´aA¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda ¡yurvedika pharmacology and pharmacogonosy. The branch of ¡yurveda dealing with identification, description, classification, properties and actions of the drugs, specially the plant drugs. Scattered all through A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda, the science basically deals with the drugs (Dravya), their therapeutic properties and pharmacological actions.
21.D¦¾ya¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Literally the term means ''the corrupted factors' or the one that contaminates. It signifies the Dh¢tu and Mala which are secondarily vitiated by the Do¾a. Hence it indicates the deranged or disturbed tissues which are regarded as seat of disease manifestation in the body. Vitiated Do¾a are also termed as D¦¾ya
22.Dvandvaja / Dvido¾aja¹¢r¤rakriy¢ A condition characterized by simultaneous predominance of two Do¾a, it can be the unique somatic constitution of the person (Prak¨ti) or a type of disorder.
1.E¾a´¢Pad¢rtha Vij®¢na Literally the term means “to seek' . In ¡yurveda, it refers to pursuits of healthy living. Three pursuits of healthy living include: longevity (Paraloka E¾a´¢), to earn wealth as a mean of fulfillment of passion or desire (Dhanai¾a´¢) and to have a pleasent existence beyond (Paraloke¾a´¢).
1.GadaRoga Nid¢na Disease or sickness. Literally the term refers to the condition which makes one disabled.
2.Gandhaka Rasaº¢stra Sa¼sk¨ta term for Sulphur. Commonest used mineral component of ¡yurvedika formulations. Regarded as subsidiary mineral in ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics, it is used for potentiating the effect and minimising the toxicity of Mercury (P¢rada) in ¡yurvedika formulations.
3.Ga´²¦¾a

¹¢l¢kya/K¢ya Cikits¢ ¡yurvedika mouthwash. Described as a step in Dinacary¢, it involves holding fluids (Mukha dh¢ra´a) like oil, honey, milk and decoction etc in the oral cavity for a specific period of time (3-8 min) without movement of the fluids inside the oral cavity. Apart from strengthening teeth and gums, it improves voice and senstivity of the taste buds also. See Ka¼vala also.
4.GarbhaMaulika Siddh¢nta Literally, the term means womb, interior chamber, the inside or middle of anything.
5.Garbha

Prasuti Ta¼tra Signifies foetus or embryo. Soul (¡tm¢) alongwith J¤va (mind) descends into the zygote formed by fusion of sperm and ovum resulting in formation of embryo. The same is confined to uterus (mother's womb) and undergoes developmental changes for nine months to develop into full term foetus.
6.Garbh¢ºaya

Str¤roga The eigth ¡ºaya in females which is the receptcle of foetus. Anatomically it is regarded as the uterus.
7.Gh¨ta/ Gh¤

K¢ya Cikits¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for clarified butter, known as Gh¤ in Hindi. Butter is gently heated till water evaporates and protein settles down at the bottom. Later it is strained to result in formation of Gh¨ta. It has been compared to nectar of life i.e. Am¨ta in ¡yurveda as it has several medicinal uses both in the original and processed forms. It has also been mentioned as a pharmaceutical preparation wherein the medicated fluids (Kv¢tha) and pastes (Kalka) are added to pure Gh¤ and boiled till the water or the liquid evaporates and froth disappears.
8.Graha´¤Roga Nid¢na Apart from anatomical structure, the term has been regarded as a disorder in ¡yurveda; it signifies disturbances in digestion and assimilation in small intestine. Disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, sprue etc fall in the category of Graha´¤.
9.Graha´¤Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Literally meaning receptacle or the one which receives. It signifies a part of Gastrointestinal system (Ko¾°ha) which anatomically comprises lower end of the stomach and upper part of the small intestine. The part receives and retains food during the process of digestion. It is regarded as seat of P¢caka Pitta and Ja°har¢gni.
10.Gr¢h¤Dravyagu´a Literally means to bind. The term refers to pharmacodynamic property of the drugs in ¡yurveda. It signifies the herbal medicines or drugs which facilitate absorption of intestinal fluids. The drugs act as appetizers as well as astringents and are used in intesinal disturbances e.g. irritable bowel syndrome, non-infective diarrhoea etc. The drugs are U¾´a in potency and pungent in taste. For example, ¹u´°h¤ (Zingiber Officinale).
11.Gra¼thi¹alya Ta¼tra Literally meaning knot or complex. In ¡yurveda, the term refers to tumour, lump or nodule visible or palpable from the surface. It has been regarded as a specific disorder in ¡yurveda and several types have been mentioned.
12.Gr¤¾maSvasthav¨tta Term refers to summer season. One of the three seasons of ¡d¢na K¢la. It signifies the end of ¡d¢na K¢la and ranges from Mid-May to Mid-July. As per ¡yurveda, the season is characterised by diminition of Kapha and vitiation of V¢ta. See ¡d¢na K¢la, §tucary¢ also.
13.Gu²a

Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Term used to indicate jaggery, indian raw natural sugar. It is the solidified form of sugarcane juice used as a content of many ¡yurvedika formulations. It is rejuvenative tonic, helps in elimination of urine and feaces. Contains vitamins and minerals also.
14.Gu´aPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for quality or trait. It refers to the qualities that are inherent in a substance and cannot exist on their own. A total of forty one Gu´as have been described in ¡yurveda and out of these twenty are regarded as physico-pharmacodynamical properties of drugs and diet e.g. heavy, cold, soft. There are three fundamental qualities of subtle substances or primal nature which have been mentioned as Trigu´a in ¡yurveda and these include: Sattva (Quiescent, self luminous stuff), Raja (Inherent energy/Active stuff) and Tama (Heavy/ obstructing/ passive stuff).
15.Gur¦Dravyagu´a / Maulika Siddh¢nta Literally the term means dispeller (Gu) of darkness (R¦). Regarded as a spiritual teacher, it is the title for living representative of philosphical or religious system. In ¡yurvedika pharmacology, it is the term for heaviness, one of the many physico-pharmacodynamic properties of a drug, constituted by Earth and Water. Its main action is providing satisfaction (T¨pti) and increasing bulk of substances (B¨ha¼´a). For example, the drug, M¢¾a (Phaseolus mungo).
16.Gu°ik¢

Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ A ball or pustule. ¡yurvedika medicinal preparations in the form of pill. These are solid, semisolid globular masses which are designed to be swallowed. These represent somewhat more stabilized form of C¦r´a. They are prepared by solidifying the decoction of drugs with or without mixing the powder of the drugs.The other method involves Bh¢vana of some specific liquids to the powdered drugs (C¦r´a), which is dried thereafter and made into semisolid bolus. The advantage is they are portable, easily administered and contain the exact dosage of the drugs. Synonyms include Vati, V¢taka, Modaka etc.
1.HemantaSvasthav¨tta Winter season. Ranges from mid-november to mid january. One of the three seasons of the Vi¾arga K¢la (Strengthening period).
2.Hikk¢Roga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for hiccup. It has been named so because of the “Hik' sound produced. Regarded as a symptom in modern system of medicine, it has been mentioned as a specific disorder in ¡yurveda, caused due to aggravation and upward movement of V¢ta. Dietary irregularities and psychic factors like anxiety, nervouseness and anger have also been mentioned as causes for production of hiccups.
3.HimaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ One of the five fundamental pharmaceutical preparations, i.e. Pa®cavidha Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢. The term signifies cold infusions prepared by soaking one part of well crushed drug in six parts of water and keeping it overnight (twelve hours). Thereafter, the filterate is taken as Hima.
4.H¨dayaRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Sa¼sk¨ta term for Heart. “H¨' means 'to take' and 'Dya' means for “to give'. The term therefore signifies the physiological aspect of heart, which is the central organ and the main site of exchange of body fluids, i.e. pure and impure blood. It is the chief site of consciousness (Cetan¢) and mind (Mana). In ¡yurveda it is also regarded as the seat of Pr¢´a/life force and also the repository of eight essential drops of Ojas in the body.
5.H¨dya

Dravyagu´a One of the pharmaco-dynamic properties of the ¡yurvedika drugs. The term refers to cardiac tonics, i.e. the drugs, properties or tastes which nurture the heart, blood and circulation. The drugs promote cheerfulness by strengthening the cardiovascular system. Sour taste (Amla Rasa) has been regarded as the best Cardiac strengthener in ¡yurveda. Other examples of H¨dya herbs include Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) and pomengranante.
1.IndriyaRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Literally the term means “ belonging to Indra'. In Ayurveda the term refers to the eleven instruments of perception and action. Five are the organs of perception (J®¢nendriya) and five are organs of action (Karmendriya). Eleventh is the mind (Manaª) which is the dual organ of perception as well as action (Ubhayendriya). These are regarded as components of ¡yuª in ¡yurveda.
1.J¢¬gamaDravyagu´a Derived from the verbal root “Gam' which means to go or move, the term refers to living entities which are self moving, more specifically referred as wanderers.
2.J¢¬gama DravyaDravyagu´a Drugs or products which are derived from animals. These are widely used in ¡yurvedika formulations, e.g. milk, urine, dung, blood, hairs and nails of various animals.The periods or time for collection of these products has also been mentioned. Blood, hair and nails etc should be collected from young and strong animals while the products like milk, urine and dung should be collected after digestion of food.
3.JalaMaulika Siddh¢nta See ¡paª.
4.Jal¦k¢

¹alya Cikits¢ The term literally means “whose life is water' or “whose home is water'. It refers to aquatic blood-sucking worms, i.e. Leeches which are used to extract bad or vitiated blood and thus cure disorders caused by vitiated blood and Pitta, e.g. swellings, tumours, burning sensation, itching etc. It is the mildest form of blood letting (Raktamok¾a´a), employed when Sir¢vedha is not indicated. Jal¦k¢vac¢ra´a has been mentioned as individual therapy in ¡yurveda.
5.Jar¢ Roga Nid¢na Derived from the verbal root “J¨º' which means to grow old or to shorten age. The term specifically refers to old age in ¡yurveda. It has been regarded as a natural disorder (Svabh¢vaja Vik¢ra) in ¡yurveda treated with rejuvenative therapies, i.e. Ras¢yana, also mentioned as Jar¢-Cikits¢ in ancient therapeutics.
6.Ja°har¢gniK¢ya Cikits¢ One of the thirteen types of Agni in the body, the central and the most important of all. It signifies the 'stomachic fire ' which performs digestion, absorption and assimilation of the ingested food and maintains health. It is believed to be located in the navel region (N¢bhi) between stomach (¡m¢ºaya) and duodenum (Pakv¢ºaya). Its vitiation is regarded as root cause of all the disorders in the body (K¢ya) in ¡yurveda and is also known as bodily fire (K¢y¢gni) or the digestive fire (P¢cakAgni). See Agni also.
7.Ja°haraRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Literally means hard, old or bound, the term signifies the abdominal region, the Stomach (¡m¢ºaya) in particular
8.J¤r´aRoga Nid¢na The term literally means old or torn out. In ¡yurvedika pathology, the term refers to the chronicity of disorders, i.e. used as a prefix for the diseases which have been of long duration. It is also used to indicate the state of complete digestion of food.
9.J¤vaMaulika Siddh¢nta Derived from “J¤va'; which means to live.The term refers to the living being in general. It has been regarded as a synonym of ¡tm¢ in ancient ¡yurvedika texts. It is the eternal life force which makes the bodily functions possible. It is of the nature of consciousness which makes the bodily functions possible. It is the core of the life (J¤vana)
10.J¤vanaMaulika Siddh¢nta Hindi term for life. Mentioned as ¡yuª in ¡yurveda. See ¡yuª.
11.J¤van¤ya”Dravyagu´a Literally the term means that which is beneficial for life (J¤vana). These are rejuvenative herbs. Specifically categorised as one of the Mah¢ka¾¢ya by Caraka, it refers to a group of drugs which include the A¾°avarga along with J¤vant¤ (Leptidinia reticulata) and Madhuya¾°i (Glyccrhizia glabra).
12.J®¢nendriya¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term ”J®¢na' signifies knowledge and ”Indriya' signifies organ or agent of perception. Hence the term refers to organs of perception of knowledge. There are five organs of perception, which include: sense of hearing, the ear (¹rotra), sense of sight, the eyes (Cak¾u), sense of touch, the skin (Tvak), sense of smell, the nose (Ghra´a), and the sense of taste, the tongue (R¢san¢).
13.JvaraRoga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for fever. It is regarded as most important and critical among all the disorders as it is the only disorder which affects each and every living being. It affects the whole body, the organs of senses as well as the mind. It has been mentioned as individual disorder as well as symptom in many other disorders. It is regarded as the king of all disorders in ¡yurveda.
1.K¢laMaulika Siddh¢nta The term literally refers to time. It also denotes the seasons; state of an individual /disease; supreme spirit regarded as destroyer of universe and Yama- the God of death.
2.K¢la BastiK¢ya Cikits¢ Fifteen days regimen of Basti treatment consisting of ten Anuv¢sana and six ¡sth¢pana Basti in ratio of 1:6:6:3, with one Anuv¢sana initially and three the at end and Anuv¢sana alternating with ¡sth¢pana in between. It pacifies vitiated V¢ta.
3.K¢mal¢Roga Nid¢na Common term for all types of Jaundice. It is the most common of all the liver disorders. Considered a Pittaja Vik¢ra in ¡yurveda characterised by yellowish discoloration (H¢ridra Var´a) of skin, eyes, tongue, mucous membranes and urine. As per modern system of medicine, it is the liver disorder which results in increased concerntration of bile pigments and bilirubin in blood.
4.K¢saRoga Nid¢na The term refers to cough. Cough due to different causes has been mentioned in ¡yurveda as per the vitiation of Do¾a and due to external injuries (K¾ataja) and loss of body tissues (K¾ayaja).
5.K¢yaMaulika Siddh¢nta Sa¼sk¨ta term for Cikits¢ in ancient therapeutics. “body', it refers to building up of body with food. The body takes in food, digests, absorbs, metabolises and assimilates in selective manner. The term comprehends the whole process of metabolism in the body. It is also used for Agni, as it is the factor responsible for bio-transformation and thus provides energy necessary for all activities in the body. Derangement of Agni is the root cause of disease in the body which requires treatment.
6.K¢ya Cikits¢A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda It is the foremost branch of A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda. K¢ya stands for body or the Agni and Cikits¢ refers to treatment. The term collectively stands for branch of ¡yurveda which deals with management of whole body disorders resulting mostly due to derangement of Agni e.g. Jvara (fever), Ku¾°ha (skin disorders) etc. The branch comprises all specialities of general medicine.
7.K¢ya KalpaK¢ya Cikits¢ K¢ya' means body and “Kalpa' means transformation. The collective term refers to ancient rejuvenative procedures which result in radical changes in life and health ranging from cure of mild disorders to weaning off the age related changes, e.g. wrinkling of skin and loss of vitality etc. It is basically an anti-aging therapy. It was first used for a sage, Cyavana §¾i, who supposedly turned to thirty years from eighty years with the treatment. The treatment involves strict daily and dietary regimens which must be followed to get desired results.
8.Kajjl¤Rasaº¢stra Black powder/amalgam, fine like eye-salve, prepared by repeated trituration of purified mercury (P¢rada) and purified sulphur (Gandhaka). Most primitive preparation used in ¡yurvedika practice. It is relatively safe and makes ideal base for most of the Rasa formulations. It exerts potentiating effect on properties of other drugs and makes them easily assimilable in the body tissues.
9.Kal¢Maulika Siddh¢nta The term means tiny fraction, small part or an aspect. Generally employed for phase of moon or a small unit of time, it is specifically used for minute membranous anatomical structures which separate primary bodily constituents (Dh¢tu) from their respective physical locations (¡ºaya). These are seven in number as per ¡yurvedika anatomy (Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra).
10.Kalka

Rasaº¢stra One of the five basic formulations (Pa®cavidha Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢) which is prepared by soaking selected fresh or dried parts of medicinal plants and then grinding them into a wet paste. The crushed plant material is administered as such without expressing the juice. It is employed for the drugs which have active principles in both solid as well as liquid parts. It is used in preparation of medicated Gh¨ta and oils. It has lower potency than the expressed juice (Svarasa).
11.KalpaK¢yacikits¢/ Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ The word is derived from the Sa¼sk¨ta word "Kalpan¢" which means to think or to imagine. In Ayurveda, the term refers to a drug or its preparation; or treatment regimes that have been formulated and have the power eradicate a disease and to transform or bring radical changes in health and life. In treatments administered in Kalpa form, the dosage is increased and decreased gradually in a definite pattern for a specific period of time to achieve desired results. Generally, Parpa°¤ preparations like Vijaya Parpa°¤ are administered in this way for the treatment of Graha´¤ (irritable bowel syndrome). It is mentioned that ¡malak¤ (Emblica officinalis), Bhall¢taka (Semecarpus anacardium) and Pipall¤ (Piper longum) when taken in Kalpa form act as Ras¢yana; i.e. immuno potentiators, anti ageing and anti oxidant agents.
12.Ka¼valaSvasthav¨tta A type of ¡yurvedika mouth washes which involves movement of herbal decoction/Oil/clarified butter in the oral cavity for a specific period of time. It has cleansing as well as strengthening action for teeth and gums. See Ga´²¦¾a also.
13.Kapha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Ka' stands for water and “Pha' refers to the process of biological evolution, hence the term literally means “life fluid'. One of the three Do¾as, it is the functional intelligence within the body regarded as the principle of cohesion. ¹le¾ma is another synonym of Kapha which means to “keep togeather'. It is responsible for nourishing, developing and fortyifying functions and plays a vital role in nutrition and stability. Most stable of three Do¾a, it is also potential source of strength and resistance against the diseases; i.e. it bestows immunity. It has five subtypes, namely ¹le¾aka, Tarpaka, Bodhaka, Kledaka and Avalambaka.
14.KarmaMaulika Siddh¢nta Literally the term stands for action or deed. The term has multiple meanings in ¡yurveda. It signifies actions done in the past as well as in the present existence.The past actions are believed to yield results in the present/ current birth (Daiva Karma). Such actions have also been mentioned as the causes of many diseases in ancient texts, e.g. Ku¾°ha (leprosy), Apasm¢ra (epilepsy) etc.
15.KarmaDravyagu´a/K¢ya Cikits¢ The term signifies both actions and procedures in different aspects.The therapeutic action of a specific drug on the body is known as Dravya Karma, while the therapeutic procedures to eliminate vitiated Do¾a e.g. Vamana (emesis), Virecana (purgation) have also been mentioned as Karma (Pa®acaKarma).
16.Karma BastiK¢ya Cikits¢ Thirty days regimen of Basti treatment consisting of eighteen Anuv¢sana and twelve ¡sth¢pana Basti in ratio of 1:12:12:5, with one Anuv¢sana initially and five at the end and Anuv¢sana alternating with ¡sth¢pana in between. It pacifies vitiated V¢ta.
17.KarmendriyaMaulika Siddh¢nta Organs/agents of action. These are five in number which include: Hasta (hands for movements), P¢da (feet for locomotion), Mukha (mouth for speech), Guda (anus for elimination) and Upastha (generative organs for procreation). See Indriya also.
18.Ka¾¢yaMaulika Siddh¢nta Sa¼sk¨ta term for astringent taste. It is a cooling taste which reduces secreations specially the salivation. It is haemostatic and aids healing. Composed of the elements V¢yu and P¨thv¤, it pacifies Kapha and Pitta and increases V¢ta. Excessive consumption results in dryness and thirst. See Rasa also.
19.Ka¾¢yaRasaº¢stra The term has two meanings: firstly, destruction of original shape/form of the Dravya during preparation of the medicinal formulation and the second, To remove or destroy disease. The term, therefore, specifically refers to the medicinal plants/ minerals used as drugs in ¡yurveda. See Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢ also.
20.Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Ka¾¢ya' refers to the drugs used in ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics while “Kalpan¢' is used for forms. Hence the term collectively refers to the processing of drugs into different forms to make them fit for consumption and administration. Five basic formulations have been mentioned which are regarded as primary preparations for other formulations (Pa®cavidha Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢) i.e. svarasa, kalka, kvatha, hima and phanta .
21.Ka°hinaDravyagu´a Literally meaning difficult, it is one of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics. It refers to the hardness of the drug. The drugs having the quality of hardness are difficult to process during preparation of the formulations. The drugs render the body strong and resistant.
22.Ka°i Basti

K¢ya Cikits¢ The term Basti refers to Intra-rectal therapies, however “Ka°i Basti' is a form of external Basti mentioned in ancient therapeutics. It is lower back bath therapy which involves localised external application of medicated oils in the region of back. A rim of black gram (Uåada D¢la) is made over the affected portion of the spine and thereafter warm medicated oil is poured in it and allowed to stand for a specific period of time. The procedure is useful in treatment of disorders like low back ache, ankylosing spondylitis, slip disc and sciatica. It benefits the muscle spasm and rigidity of lower spine and strengthens the bone tissues in that area.
23.Ka°u Maulika Siddh¢nta Sa¼sk¨ta term for pungent taste. It is the heating taste found in hot spices which stimulates appetite and is useful for assimilation of food. The taste has decongesting and vivifying properties.Composed of the elements V¢yu and Agni, it increases V¢ta & Pitta and decreases Kapha. Excessive intake of the Rasa causes burning sensation. See Rasa also.
24.Kaum¢ra Bh¨tya

A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda LIterally the term means nurturing the Kum¢ra (child) .It is one of the eight specialised branches of ¡yurveda. The subject comprises a lot more than its literal meaning. It is the branch which deals with nurturing of Kumara i.e.development from neonatal to the stage when child can eat solid food; Value of good milk and breast feeding and the associated problems;the diseases of infancy & childhood & respective curative measures.It involves pre-natal & post-natal care of the baby as well as care of thewoman before and during pregnancy.The branch therefore encompasses specialities of Gynaecology & Obstetrics togeather with Pediatrics.
25.KeºyaDravyagu´a Beneficial for hair. It refers to the natural herbs and substances that strengthen hair and hair roots. For example Madhuya¾°I (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), ¡malak¤ (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) and Bh¨¬gar¢ja (Eclipta prostrata (Linn.).
26.KharaDravyagu´a One of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics. It refers to roughness or coarseness of the drug. Such drugs are useful as scraping agents (Lekhana).
27.Ki°°a¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term refers to the waste products of digestion and metabolism. Specifically it is used for the waste products of the body's tissues (Dh¢tu) other than the three Mala, i.e. faeces, urine etc. For example, bile is the waste product (Ki°°a) of Rakta. Other examples of Ki°°a include hair, nails, waste products of nose, eyes and ears.
28.Kledaka Kapha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the five subtypes of Kapha, chiefly located in stomach where it aids digestion of food along with Sam¢naV¢yu and P¢caka Pitta. It performs the vital function of softening and liquefication of the ingested food and thus helps in digestion. It also nourishes the four other subtypes by its humid properties. Its vitiation results in irregular secreation of stomach fluids and is manifested as indigestion, loss of appetite etc.
29.Ko¾°ha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term signifies the gastrointestinal tract. Specifically refers to status of bowel of the patient. Examination of the Ko¾°ha is essential so as to determine the potency of the drug to be administered, specifically for Virecana. Depending upon the predominant Do¾a, three types have been mentioned. M¨du Ko¾°ha (soft bowels) arises due to predominance of Pitta and intake of hot milk, Gh¨ta or sugarcane produces purgation. Madhyama Ko¾°ha (medium bowels) represents the predominance of Kapha, where mild laxatives like Triphal¢ and Isabgol produce purgation while Kr¦ra Ko¾°ha (hard bowels) represents dominance of V¢ta wherein strong laxatives are required to produce purgation.
30.Ko¾°h¢gni¹¢r¤rakriy¢ See Ja°har¢gni.
31.K¨miRoga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for Worms. It includes all parasitic, bacterial, fungal and yeast infestations. It includes external (B¢hya) as well as internal (¡bhy¢ntara) parasites. Twenty in number, these have been further categorised into Kaphaja, Pur¤¾aja and Raktaja. Raktaja K¨mi is comparable to bacterias.
32.Kriy¢k¢laRoga Nid¢na Kriy¢ means action and K¢la means time. Hence literally the term means period for timely action/oppurtunity. The concept signifies the modes and stages of development of disease. ¡yurveda categorises development of disease into six stages. The course of each disease begins with accumulation of vitiated Do¾a at its respective site and thereafter it proceeds to various stages to assume specific clinical signs and symptoms. The six stages are time units for activity of Do¾a. Each stage is an oppurtuinity to halt and revert the spread of the disease. The first three stages namely Sa®caya, Prakopa and Prasara are the sub-clinical stages while the latter three which include Sth¢nasa¼ºraya, Vyakti and Bheda are the clinical stages of pathogenesis. The knowledge of Kriy¢k¢la is indispensible to a physician for early diagnosis, prognosis and timely preventive and curative measures.
33.K¾¢raDravyagu´a Literally the term means that which destroys. It is the Sa¼sk¨ta term for the alkali substances. It is light, warm, acrid and moistening. Principally used for cauterisation, it forms a separate therapeutics in ¡yurveda. K¾¢ra of both plant and mineral origin have been used in ¡yurveda e.g. Yavak¾¢ra (chemically pottassium carbonate prepared from ashes of barley ears) and ¯a¬ka´a (borax). It is indicated both externally and internally in ancient therapeutics.
34.K¾¢ra Karma¹alya The term refers to application of K¾¢ra (caustics and alkaline preparations) both externally (Pratis¢ra´¤ya) as well as internally (P¢n¤ya). It is regarded as a parasurgical measure in ¡yurveda. It is more effective than the use of surgical instruments and their substitutes, as it is not only capable of excision (Chedana), incision (Bhedana) and scraping (Lekhana), but also counteracts the vitiation of three Do¾a. It comprehends multiple qualities of many drugs. K¾¢ra Karma is capable of destroying the dead tissue and helps in regeneration of tissues. External application is indicated in treatment of skin disorders, piles and fistula while internal administration is digestive and laxative and is used for intestinal obstruction, enlargement of liver and spleen and urinary calculus.
35.K¾¢ra S¦tra

¹alya A medicated thread impregnated with paste of turmeric powder (Haridr¢ C¦r´a) and latex of Euphorbia nerifolia (Snuh¤ K¾¤ra) which is used in an ¡yurvedika parasurgical procedure that offers effective, ambulatory and safe alternative treatment for disorders like fistula (Bhagandara) and piles (Arºa). Application of this thread helps in excision as well as healing of the unhealthy tissue and the swollen veins.
36.K¾ayaRoga Nid¢na Literally the term stands for loss/ reduction/ atrophy. Antagonist to V¨ddhi, the term signifies the loss and reduction of the body tissues. Ancient texts of ¡yurveda mention detailed sign & symptoms of the V¨ddh¤ and Kshya of Do¾a & Dh¢tu. Specifically the term also refers to tuberculosis in ¡yurveda as the disease is characterised by wasting and atrophy of the bodily tissues. See R¢jayak¾m¢ also.
37.K¾audra

Dravyagu´a One of the eight varieties of honey (Madhu), classified on the basis of source, i.e. the honeybee from which it is obtained and the colour. It is produced by brown coloured honeybee (Apies florae). It has been specifically mentioned for use in diabetes which has also mentioned as K¾audra Meha in ancient texts. Other types of Madhu include: M¢k¾ika, Bhr¢mara, Pautika, Chatraka, ¡rghya, Aud¢laka, D¢la.
38.K¾¤ra

Dravyagu´a Sa¼sk¨ta term for Milk. Milk of eight animals have been specifically mentioned for use in ¡yurvedika formulations and are collectively termed as Ashta K¾¤ra. These include- cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, elephant, horse, camel and woman.. Milk is used as the chief ingredient in many therapeutic procedures as suggested by the name, e.g. K¾¤ra Basti, K¾¤ra Dh¢r¢ etc. This term is also used for latex of medicinal herbs
39.K¾¤ra P¢kaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Pharmaceutical preparation which is medicated milk prepared by boiling one part of a prescribed drug with eight parts of milk and thirty two parts of water till only milk remains and water is evaporated. Such preparation helps to combat the unwanted effects of the drug e.g. Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Bedd.), freely used in cardiac disorders is dry but Arjuna K¾¤rap¢ka is not as dry as the drug.
40.K¾udraRoga Nid¢na Literally the term stands for small. A group of disorders has been mentioned in ancient texts which have ill defined pathology and insufficient description of signs and symptoms. Such disorders have been collectively referred as K¾udra Roga. For example, Aru¼¾ik¢ (dandruff), Cippa (nail bed abscess).
41.Ku¾°haRoga Nid¢na Literally the term means which damages the tissues. It is a common term for skin disorders specially leprosy as the disease causes disfiguration, discolouration and brings disgrace to the bearer. It destroys the tissues and results in even loss of the body parts.
42.Ku°¤pr¢veºikaK¢ya Cikits¢ Indoor rejuvenative procedure. A type of Ras¢yana therapy, i.e. rejuvenative measure which involves the admission of the patient into a specially designed cottage. Particular Ras¢yana drugs have been mentioned which are to be administered through this method only.
43.Kv¢thaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ The term refers to decoction, one of the five basic formulations (Pa®cavidha Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢), where one part of the selected drug or drugs is boiled over moderate fire (Madhyam¢gni) in an open vessel with four, eight or sixteen parts of water (as specified) untill one quarter of the water remains. Thereafter the decoction is strained through a piece of cloth. Before being added to water, the drugs are coarsely powdered and soaked in water overnight. The quantity of water is dependent on the physical properties of the constituent drugs, i.e. soft, medium or hard. It may be administered as such or used for preparation of secondary formulations like Avaleha, Gh¨ta and Taila etc.
1.LaghuDravyagu´a The term literally refers to lightness.One of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology, It is the property of ¡k¢ºa. The drugs having the property promote the digestive fire, are easy to digest, increase metabolism in the body constituents and thus keep the body energetic and active.
2.Laghutray¤Sa¼hit¢ The three short or easy ancient texts namely M¢dhava Nid¢na, Bh¢vaprak¢ºa Sa¼hit¢ and ¹¢r¬gadhara Sa¼hit¢ are collectively referred to as Laghutray¤. The texts are of primary importance in ¡yurveda and deal with important information about diagnosis of disease, drugs of plant or mineral origin and preparation of different fomulations, e.g. decoction, powder, tablets etc in concise form.
3.Lak¾a´aRoga Nid¢na Literally the term stands for characterstics/ aspect / definition/ condition or mark. The term specifically refers to the indicators of the disease in ¡yurvedika pathology. As for diagnosis of the disease, the signs as well as symptoms are regarded as the indicators. The symptoms are the subjective ones which are expressed by the patient while the sign refers to the physical characterstics observed by the physician during examination of the patient. The term “Lak¾a´a' specifically refers to the Symptoms.
4.La¬ghanaK¢ya Cikits¢ Fasting, reducing or lightening therapies. One of the six preparatory procedures (Upakrama) mentioned in ¡yurveda. It embodies techniques and procedures that reduce, eliminate, calm and purify. Such procedures reduce the body bulk. It includes four eliminative (Sa¼ºodhana) procedures namely Vamana, Virecana, Nir¦ha Basti and Nasya; intake of light food (Laghu Bhojana); administration of digestive drugs (P¢cana); fasting (Upav¢sa); exercise (Vy¢y¢ma); exposure to sunlight and fresh air (M¢ruta & ¡tapa); control of thirst (T¨¾´¢). It is the prescribed therapeutic measure for treatment of ¡ma. See B¨ha¼´a and Apatarpa´a also.
5.Lasik¢Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Fluid in the body which resides in between the skin (Tvak) and muscle tissues (M¢¼sa). The term refers to sebaceous secretions. It has been mentioned as the site of Pitta and is the vitiated factor (D¦¾ya) in many disorders e.g. Prameha (urinary disorders /polyurea) and Ku¾°ha.
6.LauhaRasaº¢stra A term used for metals in general or pharmaceutical preparations containing Loha Bhasma as the main ingredient, e.g. Saptam¨ta Lauha.
7.Lava´aDravyagu´a Sa¼sk¨ta term for salty taste. It is the slightly heating and hydrophilic in nature and improves appetite, digestion, cleanses the blocked channels and aids in circulation. It adds relish to food and activates flow of saliva and gastric juices. It helps in strenthening of tissues but depletes the tissues when used in excess. Composed of elements like Jala and Agni, it increases Kapha and Pitta while pacifies the vitiated V¢ta. If taken in excess, it causes burning sensation, high blood pressure, impotency, baldness, wrinkles and itching. See Rasa also.
8.Lava´a

/

Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Literally meaning salt, the term specifically refers to the salts extensively used in ¡yurvedika formulations. Both naturally ocurring and artificially prepared salts are used in pharmaceutical preparations. Lava´as are used both as drugs and as adjuncts. Most commonly used Lava´as have been colllectively mentioned as “Pa®aca Lava´a' which are appetisers, digestives, purifiers and softening.
9.LehaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ See Avaleha.
10.LekhanaDravyagu´a Means to scrape. it is one of the pharmacological actions of the drug.The term is used for the drugs/herbs which scrape the waste residues and clear the system of deranged constituents. The drugs having such action are bitter (Tikta) and pungent (Ka°u) in nature. For example, Guggulu (Commiphora wightti), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Vac¢ (Acorus calamus).
11.Lekhana¹alya One of the eight surgical procedures (¹astra Karma) in ancient texts; the term refers to scraping or scooping. It is used for hard ulcerative lesions with thick rolled margins, which have a tendency to crack repeatedly and have raised granulating surface. It is carried out to promote healing in a chronic, non healing ulcer and to remove tartar from teeth etc.
12.Lekhan¤yaDravyagu´a The one which has the therapeutic action of Lekhana.One of the fifty Mah¢ka¾¢ya by Caraka, it includes a group of herbs that scrape away the excess tissue, excess secretion or any obstruction.The drugs enkindle the digestive fire and pacify the Kapha Do¾a.The drugs in this group include: Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn. / Cyperus scariosus R. Br. / Cyperus arundinaceum Baker), Ku¾°ha (Saussurea lappa Clarke), Haridr¢ (Curcuma longa), D¢ru Haridr¢ (Berberis asiatica Roxb.), Vac¢ (Acorus calamus Linn), Ativi¾¢ (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle), Ka°uki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn), Cirabilva (Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch), Haimavat¤ (Paris polyphylla Sm).
13.Lepa

Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Medicines in the form of paste used for external application. The drugs made into a fine powder are mixed with some fluid medium indicated in each preparation and made into a soft paste. The media used for mixing include water, cow's urine, oil, Gh¨ta etc. Different types of Lepa have been mentioned in ¡yurveda for use.
14.Loha

Rasaº¢stra Sa¼sk¨ta term for the iron metal or metals in general. Depending upon the qualities and the therapeutic values, three types of iron have been mentioned in our ancient texts: Mu´²a, T¤k¾´a and K¢nta.
1.Maharasa

Rasaº¢stra A group of eight superior minerals viz Abraka(Mica), Vaikranta(Tourmaline), Maksika(Copper pyrite), Vimala(Iron pyrite), Silajatu(Black Bitumen), Tuttha(Blue Vitriol), Capala(Bismuth ore) and Rasaka(Calamine) which are used extensively in Ayurveda.
2.M¢¼saRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Sa¼sk¨ta term for flesh. It is the third among the seven bodily constituents (Dh¢tu), derived from Rakta Dh¢tu and is precursor of the Med¢ Dh¢tu. Comprable to the muscular tissue in the body, it provides physical strength, covers the bones and nourishes the fat tissues. It contributes to the bulk of the body. Among the diseases caused by its vitiation, important ones are cervical adenitis, goitre, granulomas and tumours.
3.M¢nasa Do¾a¹¢r¤rakriy¢/ Maulika Siddh¢nta Psychic factors responsible for mental disorders. Of the Trigu´a, only Satva Gu´a (Balance of Harmony) is regarded as Gu´a, while Raja (Stimulator) and Tama (Inhibitor) are the Do¾a. These are the psychopathogenetic factors which affect mind and produce mental disorders.
4.M¢ra´aRasaº¢stra Literally means ''killing'. It refers to the processing of metals and minerals through oxidation in ¡yurveda which renders these substances to Bhasma (ash powders) useful for medicinal purpose.The process converts these substances into microfined forms/compounds which can be easily absorbed and assimilated into the system without exhibiting any harmful side effects.The process involves grinding /triturating the purified metals and minerals with herbal juices and heating at high temperatures in furnaces for several times. It enhances the natural properties of the metals and minerals and introduces new properties into these substances.
5.M¢tr¢K¢yacikits¢ General term for proper amount of drug, diet and physical activity. Specifically refers to dosage of pharmaceutical preparation sufficient to counteract the disease without causing any side effects. The dose of a drug depends upon multiple factors, e.g; season, constitution of patient, potency of the drug and the form in which the drug is administered e.g. powder, paste, decoction etc.
6.Mad¢tyayaK¢yacikits¢ Literally means “intoxication”. It is the state or symptoms that arise due to continuous use or a high dose of substances that are intoxicating. Although the term signifies intoxication of any kind, alcohol (Madya) was the original reference. According to modern medicine, there are four stages involved in the process of addiction or drug dependence. These are acute intoxication, symptoms of withdrawal, drug dependence and finally drug abuse. The state of mad¢tyaya is comparable to the third and fourth of these stages.
7.MadhumehaK¢yacikits¢ / Roga Nid¢na Literally the term means excretion of sweet honey like urine.The term signifies Diabetes Mellitus in general as it is the disorder in which blood glucose level increases, exceeds the renal threshold and is excreted in urine. ¡yurveda regards it as a type of Prameha or the urinary disorders and is mentioned to be incurable.
8.Madhura¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the six RASA mentioned in ¡yurveda, the term refers to Sweet taste.It is Guru (Heavy), Snigdha (Viscous) and ¹¤ta (Cooling). It is nourishing, toning and calming. It helps to build up the body tissues. Composed predominentaly of P¨thv¤ & Jala elements, it increases Kapha and pacifies V¢ta and Pitta. If taken in excess, it causes obesity, diabetes and lethargy. See Rasa also.
9.MadhyamaMaulika Siddh¢nta Term stands for “intermediate' or “in between'. Used for multiple meanings in ¡yurveda, It signifies the middle part of the body (trunk) anatomically and middle age from medicinal point of view.''
10.MadyaBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Any intoxicating material or substance. Specifically refers to fermented alcoholic preparations.
11.Mah¢bh¦taMaulika Siddh¢nta The term literally refers to gross eternal elements.These are the basic building blocks of existence. The building blocks of matter combine in an infinite variety of proportions such that each form of matter is unique. It is the smallest divisible part of matter which forms the universe.The universe has a miniature representation in human body.The five gross elements include: Earth (P¨thv¤), Water (Jala), Fire (Teja), Air (V¢yu) and Space (¡k¢ºa). Each of these five is related to a chief sense of perception and has a chief property. Collectively, these are termed as Pa®camah¢bh¦ta.
12.Mah¢ka¾¢yaDravyagu´a “Ka¾¢ya” signifies the Drugs having thearapeutic value. Mah¢ka¾¢ya is the term coined by Caraka for classification of the drugs and it refers to a group of drugs which are used for similar purpose and have similar therapeutic action. Mah¢ka¾¢ya are named on the basis of the therapeutic actions and uses of that particular group. About fifty groups have been mentioned in the ancient texts which have therapeutic value. For example, Balya (strength promoting), Vedana Sth¢pana(pain alleviating) etc.
13.Majj¢Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra One of the seven bodily constituents (Dh¢tu), it is derived from Asthi Dh¢tu (Bone) and is generative of ¹ukra (Semen). It is the oleating material which fills the cavities and pores of bones; it is located especially in the internal cavity of big bones. From its location, it is comparable with the bone marrow. Its main function is to provide strength to the body. It also nourishes the ¹ukra (Sperm), which is the final constituent.The diseases caused by its vitiation include pain in finger joints, giddiness and loss of consciouness etc.
14.Mala¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term is derived frm the Dh¢tu M¨ which means to cleanse and purify. It refers to products of digestion and tissue metabolism which are polluting agents i.e. which, unless expelled, render the body impure. As a component of life's triad, these are the basic constituents of living organism and equally contribute to sustenance & proper functioning of the body, in a way similar to Do¾a and Dh¢tu. Their formation is mandatory for the maintainence of health and excretion is equally important as these toxify if retained. Pur¤¾a (Faeces), M¦tra (Urine) and Sveda (Sweat) are the main Malas in the body.
15.Mana¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Derived from the verbal root M¨ which means to think. It is the term for psychic energy, spirit or elemental force of nature which gives individuality to the person. It refers to the instinctive mind or the seat of desire. It is the entity responsible for generation of knowledge. It is the governer of all senses. It is regarded as the eleventh Indriya, also known as Ubhayendriya as it shares the characterstics of coginition as well as action. Forms a part of Trida´²a (Tripod) on which the individual rests and functions. It has specific characterstics viz Ekatva (Solitude) and A´utva (Subtleness). Analysis, thinking, imagination are some of the specific functions of Mana.
16.MandaDravyagu´a One of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedik pharmaceutics, the term literally means “slow'. It is the property of P¨thv¤ & Jala Mah¢bh¦ta. The drugs having this property act slowly. It provokes the Kapha and pacifies the Pitta. For example Gu²uc¤ (Tinospora cordifolia).
17.Ma´daBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Refers to rice water. It is regarded as a preparation where one part of rice (¹¢li Dh¢nya) is boiled with fourteen parts of water till rice is properly cooked. Thereafter water is filtered, i.e. taken without rice grains. It optimises the digestive fire.
18.Ma¼d¢gniK¢yacikits¢ Signifies diminished digestive capacity or low digestive fire. A type of imbalance of Ja°har¢gni(digestive fire), which occurs due to vitiation of Kapha. It is a condition in which food taken even in normal quantity can not be digested or metabolised. It is caused by practice of diet & activity which vitiate Kapha, e.g; sleeping during day time, drinking too much water, improper food habits and suppression of natural urges. It is mentioned as the root cause of multiple disorders. See Agni also.
19.Ma¼traK¢yacikits¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term derived from the root ''Mana' meaning mind and suffix ''Tra' meaning tool. The term literally refers to mind tool i.e. instrument of thought. It signifies sacred phrases or sounds that are endowed with special power for health and spiritual development.These may be chanted loudly or repeated silently to produce significant results. Ma¼tras quieten the mind, harmonize the inner self and stimulate latent spiritual qualities. Incantation of specific Ma¼tras has been mentioned to be useful for treatment of psychic disorders. It forms a part of Daiv¤ Cikits¢ mentioned in ancient therapeutics.
20.MardanaRasaº¢stra The process of trituration of drugs generally the metals & minerals to a fine state of division with or without prescribed liquid
21.MarmaRacan¢ ¹¢r¤ra The term refers to vital spots/lethal or mortal spots in the body where the vital forces are cocerntrated. These are sensitive and vulnerable. Injury to such spots results in permanent deformity to the organ or death. Anatomically, these are places where flesh (M¢¼sa), veins (Sir¢) and arteries (Dhaman¤) are intimately associated. ¡yurveda emphasises one hundred and seven (107) points in the human body which are of great importance. According to the risk involved, these have been furthur classified into Sadyapr¢´ahara (instant killers), K¢l¢ntarapr¢´ahara (causing death after some interval), Viºalyaghna (causing death as soon as the foreign body is removed), Vaikalyakara (causing permanent loss or deformity of the organ), Ruj¢kara (causing intense pain in the affected region). The knowledge of the mortal spots in the human body is very essential especially for the surgeon and the topic has been mentioned to comprise half the scope of the Surgery in Ayurveda.
22.MastuBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Curd water. It is liquid seprated from yoghurt. It is used both externally and internally in ancient therapeutics. Ingredient of many pharmaceutical preparations, it has also been mentioned as Anup¢na.
23.Med¢Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Sa¼sk¨ta term for fat or adipose tissue. It is one of the seven bodily constituents (Dh¢tu), derived from M¢¼sa (flesh) and is precursor of the Asthi Dh¢tu (bones). Its chief locus is the belly; it supports the body and contributes to its firmness. It nourishes the bones, cools the system through prespiration. Among the disease involving the constituent are thirst, dryness of mouth, palate and throat, burning sensation in the body, numbness of limbs and lack of energy.
24.M¢ra´a¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for intellect. Literally means that which bears intelligence. It is the mental power, intelligence or wisdom. See Buddh¤ also.
25.MedhyaDravyagu´a Generalised term signifying pharmacological action of drugs on various areas of mental functions. These herbs enhance the mental & intellectual ability. Such herbs act on each individual aspect of mental ability & hence improve ability to learn, retain and recall information and also the coordination between these aspects. For example; Br¢hm¤ (Bacopa monnieri) and ¹a¬khapu¾p¤ (Convolvulus pluricaulis).
26.Mithy¢yogaRoga Nid¢na Literally means improper proportion. Regarded as one of the cause of the disorders in ¡yurveda, it signifies improper physical, mental and vocal activity, i.e; improper application of mind, speech and physical activity by an individual. The same has also been mentioned for the seasons and the food habits. For example, climatic features of one season occuring in another is the improper proportion of K¢la while untrue, untimely, harsh speech indicates Mithy¢yoga of speech (V¢cika). Such coordinations result in undesirable results causing disease.
27.M¨duDravyagu´a One of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics, the term literally refers to softness. It is the property of ¡k¢ºa and Jala. The herbs having the property are easy to process, digest and soften the waste products. Such drugs enhance Kapha and pacify the V¢ta and Pitta.
28.M¦h¦rtaMaulika Siddh¢nta Literally means ''moment of an hour'. The term signifies a period of time or a certain division of a day or night. There are at least three m¦h¦rta systems. The first defines one m¦h¦rta as 1/8th of a day or night (90 minutes in a 12-hour night), the second as 1/15th of a day or night (48 minutes), and the third as 1/16th of a day or night (45 minutes). M¦h¦rta also refers to the astrological science of determining the most auspicious periods for specific activities. See Br¢hmam¦h¦rta also.
29.M¦laMaulika Siddh¢nta / Dravyagu´a Literally meaning ''root' or 'foundation'. The root, base or bottom or basis of an object etc. Also refers to foundational, original or causal, as in M¦la Grantha, i.e. original text. As for the part of a plant in ¡yurvedika pharmacogonosy, the term refers to the root of a plant.
30.M¦rcch¢Roga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for fainting or unconsciousness. A disease caused by vitiation of Tama, which causes blockage of sensory pathways along with other Do¾a, leading to loss of mental perception of pleasure or pain. Regarded as first stage of coma.
1.N¢bhi

Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Sa¼sk¨ta term for navel or the umblicus. One of the ten specific life spots- the Daºapr¢´¢yatana (seat of vital air), it is also the site of one of the six energy Cakras known as Ma´ip¦ra Cakra. It is a Sadyaª Pr¢´ahara Marma (instantly fatal) in nature. It corresponds to deep vital structures in the navel region.
2.N¢å¤Racan¢ ¹¢r¤ra Literally means tubular stalk or flute, the term refers to a duct, vein or artery in human body, specifically used for pulse or radial artery . It also signifies the fine energy channels through which movement and impulses are controlled. Hence, it is used for the nerve fibres within the human body.There are three main N¢å¤s namely Iå¢, Pi¬gal¢ and Su¾umn¢. Su¾umn¢ is the major nerve bundle which passes through the spinal column while Iå¢ and Pi¬gal¢ intertwine the spinal column.
3.N¢å¤ Par¤k¾¢

Roga Nid¢na One of the A¾°avidha Par¤k¾¢, the term stands for pulse examination. It is unique amongst all systems of diagnosis in the world as it is not merely the counting of the pulse rate but is an art as well as science which helps to assess the Do¾ika equilibrium in the body and thus in diagnosis and thereafter treatment of the individual. It is conducted early in the morning on empty stomach. Pulse is examined at the root of the thumb, one A¬gula below Ma´ibandha Sandh¤ by examining the radial artery pulse. The index, middle and ring fingers are used. V¢ta Do¾a is examined by tip of index finger, Pitta by tip of middle finger and Kapha by tip of ring finger. The pulse rhythm varies in accordance with the patient's bodily condition (hunger, thirst, sleep and stage of digestion); environmental conditions (exposure to sun, cold & breeze); and mental state (anger, sorrow, joy).
4.N¢å¤ SvedanaK¢yacikits¢ Steam kettle sudation. A type of local thermal fomentation, wherein the herbs are boiled to prepare decoction over low flame in a pressure cooker or kettle. The steam thus produced is passed through a hose and directed towards the desired body part. It is effective in joint pains, muscle spasm, spondylitis & paralysis.
5.N¢n¢tmaja RogaK¢yacikits¢ A disease caused by single Do¾a which is predominant, i.e. either of V¢ta, Pitta or Kapha. ''Anatamaja' pertains to the one which is not produced by self. Here, the prefix ''N¢' representing ''not' has been added to the term ''An¢tmaja'; and literally the term means the disease which is produced from ones own self or a single Dosa only. Eighty types of V¢ta, forty of Pitta & twenty types of Kapha N¢n¢tmaja disorders have been described in classical texts.
6.Nasya

K¢yacikits¢ One of the five major therapeutic procedures mentioned in Pa®acakarma, ''Nasa' means nose and the term Nasya signifies nasal application of herbal medicines .The nose is the doorway to the ¹ira or the brain. It is a specific treatment for every disorder arising above the collarbone (Urdhvajatrugata) and can be given in healthy individuals as well. It consists of an oil massage of head, neck and shoulders, combined with fomentation of that area and thereafter, the medicines are administered through the nostrils in specific quantity. The therapy cleanses the nostrils and sinuses of accumulated mucous and toxins and strengthens the nervous system. Ayurveda recommends this treatment for strengthening the whole respiratory apparatus, eliminating sinus trouble and reducing congestion in the head and chest as well as tension in the neck. An excess of bodily humors accumulated in the sinus, throat, nose or head area are eliminated by means of the nearest possible opening, the nose. Nasya is of three types, purgative (¹odhana), nourishing (B¨ha¼´a) and palliative (¹amana). For each ailment a substance that gives desirable result is selected. See
7.¹irovirecana also.Nid¢na Roga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term that refers to aetiology or the initiator of the disorder as well as diagnosis of the disease. It is a factor both in genesis as well as the knowledge of the disease.What seed is to the sprout, Nid¢na is to the disease. It signifies all the aetiological factors whether endogenous, exogenous, immediate or distant.
8.Nid¢na Pa®cakaRoga Nid¢na Etiological pentads. The term signifies the five fold methodology for examination or the five steps of the Roga Par¤k¾¢ which are the means of understanding the genesis of the disease.These are employed for proper diagnosis of the disorder. It includes Nid¢na (aetiological factors), P¦rvar¦pa (porodromal signs), R¦pa (signs & Symptoms), Upaºaya (therapeutics tests) and Sampr¢pti (pathogenesis). Though employed collectively for proper diagnosis, they are significant individually also and are applicable in different states of the disease management.
9.Nidr¢¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for sleep. When the mind is afflicted by ''Tama' at night, the Kapha Do¾a increases and natural sleep is inflicted. When organs of coginition and action, i.e. Manaª and Indriya are fatigued, these are withdrawn from their respective functions & become inactive; both mind and the body go to rest. As a result the individual's interaction with the surroundings comes to a halt. Regarded as one of the three leading pillars of healthy living (Upastambha), it is also a basic instinct and is an essential requirement for life and good health.
10.Nija RogaRoga Nid¢na Innate, internal or one's own. Refers to endogenous (systemic) disorders caused due to derangement of Dosha-dhatu equilibrium and other intrinsic factors of the body due to faulty diet and lifestyles.
11.Nir¢maRoga Nid¢na The term signifies the one which is free from ¡ma. The Do¾a may be aggravated in such conditions but it is compartively easier to balance the vitiated Do¾a, as no pre-therapy of D¤pana - P¢cana drugs is required. (S¢ma with ¡ma).
12.Niruha BastiK¢yacikits¢ See ¡sth¢pana Basti.
13.Niry¢sa

Dravyagu´a Sa¼sk¨ta term for exudates from the medicinal plants.
14.NiyamaSvasthav¨tta The personal do's and donts. Literally the term means to restrain, regulate, control or check. ''Ni' refers to within and ''Yama' refers to self restraint. Second limb of A¾°¢¬ga Yoga, it signifies the art of self purification, i.e. right conduct towards oneself. It involves keeping one's mind free from anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, doubts, and negative mental states such as hatred, anger and pride. It also implies eliminating these negative qualities and re-establishing positive ones through constructive observances which include - Santo¾a (contentment), ¹auca (purity), Sv¢dhy¢ya (self-discipline), Tapas (austerity) and £ºvara Pr¢´idh¢na (devotion to god).
1.Ojas¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Bodily strength, ability or the vital power. It is the invisible source of life force or vigour that imparts energy to the individual. It is the superfine essence of bodily tissues (Dh¢tu), rightly called as life sap. Ojas is positive, nurturing energy that boosts the immune, nervous, endocrine and psychological systems in the individual. It is the outcome of proper digestion of nourishing foods in the body. Hence, a nourishing diet combined with excellent digestion is the key to building Ojas. It is of two types Para-Ojas & Apara-Ojas. Former is located in H¨daya (heart) and measures A¾°a Bindu (eight drops) in quantity whereas the other is distributed all over the body and measures Ardh¢®jali (half of the folded hollow of the hand) quantity. It corresponds to the immune functions of the body. Physically, it is white in colour, with slightly yellow and red tinge and is of the nature of Kapha. It has ten specific pharmacodynamical properties - Madhura (sweet), ¹¤ta (cold), M¨du (soft), Snigdha (unctuous), Bahal(abundant),¹lak¾´a (smooth), Picchila (slimy), Guru (heavy), Manda (dull/not fast) & Prassana (clear).
2.Ojok¾ayaRoga Nid¢na Literally means Depletion of Ojas. It is a condition which occurs due to the excessive loss and wasting of Ojas. It is manifested as loss of consciousness, wasting of muscles, wasting of bones, stupor, delirium, loss of memory and even death. Many scholars have correlated the condition with AIDS (Aquired Immuno deficiency Syndrome). See Ojas also.
3.OjomehaRoga Nid¢na A Sa¼sk¨ta term which literally means excretion of Ojas in the urine and refers to Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus) as the disease is also characterised by loss of vitality. See Madhumeha also.
1.P¢cak¢gni¹¢r¤rakriy¢ See Ja°har¢gni.
2.Pacaka Pitta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the five sub-types of Pitta (fire) that digests food (Pacati). Situated in the region between the stomach and the intestines, it is the essence behind the digestive fire. It is responsible for all the steps of digestion, till the extraction of the S¢ra or essence from food. It is the basis and support of the other forms of Pitta. When aggravated, it causes indigestion which results in hyperacidity and ulcers. If impaired, it causes poor absorption and low digestive fire. It can be compared to the digestive enzymes, hepatic bile or bile with pancreatic juice in particular.
3.Pacana Dravyagu´a / ¹alya Ta¼tra One of the pharmacodynamic actions of drug mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology. Literally the term denotes digestion or the drugs capable of digesting ¡ma toxins and undigested residues. The drugs increase the secretion of digestive juices and help directly in digestion of food but they do not enhance the gastric fire and therefore do not stimulate appetite. For example, N¢gakeºara (Mesua ferrea). The drugs having the action are also termed as “Pacan¤ya'. 2. In ¹alya Ta¼tra, it is the eighth measure for the treatment of wounds and stands for “ripening'. It refers to procedures which aid suppuration and help in dehydrating wounds.
4.Pad¢rthaMaulika Siddh¢nta Literally the term refers to the meaning of a word. But specifically the term stands for the “matter'. A Pad¢rtha is an object of valid knowledge which can be thought of or perceived (Artha) and named (Pada). All things which exist and all objects of experience are hence Pad¢rtha. Simple substances are eternal and independent (K¢ra´a Dravya). Compound substance is dependent and transitory. There are six Pad¢rtha or categories in theist philosophy of Vaiºe¾ika which are also accepted in ¡yurveda. They are Dravya (substance), Gu´a (quality), Karma (activity), S¢m¢nya (generality or similarity amongst objects), Viºe¾a (difference or dissimilarity amongst objects) and Samav¢ya (inseparable inherence). In ¡yurveda they are classified on basis of therapeutic importance as S¢m¢nya, Viºe¾a, Drayva, Gu´a, Karma and Samav¢ya.
5.Pa®cagavyaK¢yacikits¢ Five important products obtained from cow which includes milk (Dugdha), curd (Dadhi), clarified butter (Gh¨ta), urine (M¦tra) and dung (Gomaya). These components may be used alone or in combination with other herbs for treatment of diseases. Their use is therapeutic as well as in auspicious rituals. Their properties are believed to strengthen our immune system. Formulations such as Pa®cagavya Gh¨ta and Kaly¢´aka Gh¨ta have been specifically mentioned in psychiatric disorders like Unm¢da & Apasm¢ra.
6.Pa®cakarma

K¢yacikits¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term wherein “Pa®ca' stands for five and “Karma' stands for therapeutic measures; thereby the term collectively signifies a pentad of therapeutic procedures for bio-purification & rejuvenative therapies to detoxify the body and to revitalise the entire system. A collective expression for Sa¼ºodhana Cikitsa, it is a curative management plan for diseases. It may be employed before the start of treatment procedures for many disorders as the body needs to be cleansed of impurities and rejuvenated in health before it can be treated for complex health problems. Apart from it, Pa®cakarma on its own is also a cure to many problems. The therapy involves five cleansing procedures namely: Vamana (emesis), Virecana (purgation), ¡sth¢pana Basti (non-oily cleansing enema), Anuv¢sana Basti (nourishing & oleation enema) and Nasya (nasal therapies). These practices are extremely helpful in relieving chronic & deep seated diseases as well as beneficial for preserving and improving physical and mental health. Some scholars alsoincule Raktamok¾a´a (therapeutic blood letting) in it.
7.Pa®camah¢bh¦taMaulika Siddh¢nta See Mah¢bh¦ta.
8.Pa®c¢¬gaDravyagu´a Pa®ca stands for five and A¬ga for parts, the term signifies five useful parts of plant, i.e. plant as a whole including the root, leaves, stem, fruits and flowers. The active principles of the plant are distributed in all these parts.
9.Pa®cavidha Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Literally the term means five fundamental methods for pharmaceutical preparations. These in decreasing order of potency include - Svarasa (expressed juice of plants/parts), Kalka (paste), Kv¢tha (decoction), Hima (cold infusion) & Ph¢´°a (hot infusion). These are the basic five ideas on which the branch of Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ is based. All the future developments in this branch were further proliferations of the Pa®acavidha Ka¾¢yaKalpan¢. As above formulations had a short shelf life, there was a need for developing secondary formulations. Drugs used for the preparations are grouped as M¢haka¾¢ya.
10.P¢´²uRoga Nid¢na The term is used to depict a colour arising due to combination of white & yellow, like the flower of Ketaki or the screw pine, (Pandanus tectorius). It is also used to signify the yellowish discoloration of skin due to deficiency of the blood as in anaemia & hyperbilirubinemia.
11.P¢radaRasaº¢stra Sa¼sk¨ta term for the metal mercury. Literally it means the one that enables a person to achieve salvation by overcoming the wordly affairs. It is an important metal used in ¡yurveda which forms the basis of Rasaº¢stra. Though Mercury is a heavy metal and regarded unsafe for consumption in modern medicine, it is an important part of Indian system of medicine. The Rasa Yoga or mercurial organo- mineral formulations are regarded as better and fast acting in very small doses and are therefore widely prescribed. It is “processed' through a laborious and multi-layered sequence of cleansing with herbs and distillation which render it safe for consumption. Other synonyms of mercury include Rasa, Rasendra, S¦ta and Miºraka.
12.Par¤k¾¢Maulika Siddh¢nta Literally the term stands for “examination'. In ¡yurveda, it refers to parameters of investigation and diagnosis. For this, three fold (Trividha), six (½a²vidha), eight (A¾°avidha) and tenfold (Daºavidha) methods of examination have been mentioned in ¡yurveda. The three fold examination has been given utmost importance as it forms the basis of all other types. It includes: Darºana (inspection/see & observe), Sparºana (touch/palpation), and Praºna (inquire by asking questions) Par¤k¾¢. Caraka mentions ¡ptopadeºa (theoretical knowledge), Pratyak¾a (practical or Darºana Par¤k¾¢) & Anum¢na (observation & inferences) as three specific methods for examination.
13.Pari´¢maRoga Nid¢na The third major cause of disease. It literally means the end product or transformation. It refers to the changes that take place in the external environment during the various periods of day and seasons of the year. The cyclic changes have corresponding effects on the humans, which can be countered by following seasonal and daily regimens as mentioned in ancient texts. If a person does not modify the lifestyle accordingly, then discordance will arise and lead to a diseased state. It can be more specifically defined as being out of harmony with the rhythms and cycles of nature.
14.Pari¾ekaK¢yacikits¢ It means to sprinkle or to pour. It is a procedure in which medicated liquids like Taila, Gh¨ta, milk or plain water etc are sprinkled or poured in form of Dh¢r¢ or continous stream over the affected body part or the whole body with the help of a cloth dipped in fluid or a vessel, preferably earthen, through a hole in its base. It relieves pain, stiffness and heaviness in the body. It is one of the types of external oleation or fomentation therapies and has been included in Vra´a Cikitsa as well. Pizhichil therapy employed in Keral¤ya Pa®cakarma is similar to it.
15.Parpa°¤Rasaº¢stra Literally the term signifies “a thin flake '. A medicinal preparation of mercury and sulphur ( Kajjali ) prepared by heating it alone or with other drugs over mild heat with a small amount of Gh¨ta till it melts and thereafter pouring the melted liquid on a banana leaf which is placed over a fresh cowdung cake. It is then covered with another leaf and gently pressed with a pouch made of cow dung. Thereafter it is allowed to cool and flakes of medicine are taken out and powdered. Regarded as the best medicine for gastro-intestinal disorders especially for Graha´¤ (irritable bowel syndrome), it is administered in form of Kalpa, i.e. for a specific period of time in a specified dose and dietary regimens. Such preparations preserve their potency indefinitely.
16.Paºc¢t KarmaK¢yacikits¢ It refers to the procedures/specific methodology to be followed after the main therapeutic procedure or the Pradh¢na Karma has been accomplished.1.In K¢yacikitsa, it refers to the rehabilitative measures following the Pa®cakarma therapy and includes the measures to be followed immediately after the therapy, i.e. the Sa¼sarjana Krama (normalising diet) and Parih¢ra Vi¾aya (following the specific do's & donts). 2. In ¹alya Tamtra, all post-operative procedures are included under it.
17.PathyaK¢yacikits¢ Literally it means “that what is beneficial'. It refers to specific dietary as well as lifestyle regimes which are compatible for a person in health or for the one suffering from a specific disease. It signifies the diet and regimen, which does not impair the body's systems, is pleasing for the mind and needs to be advocated during the course of the disorder. It depends upon the nature of disease or diseased, season and the predominant Do¾a. Commonly mentioned as the do's of the disorder; it has been mentioned as eqivalent to Au¾adh¤ (medicine) as it plays a crucial role in management of the disorder. Because of its benefits to the person as a whole, it is also termed as S¢tmya. See Pathya-Apathya also.
18.Pathya-ApathyaK¢yacikits¢ A unique concept of ¡yurveda which defines what diet is to taken; what life style is to be followed (Pathya) and what not to follow (Apathya). The concept has been given great emphasis in ¡yurveda. Pathya in disease is worth a thousand medicines and no amount of medication can be beneficial to a patient who does not follow the Pathya prescribed for it, as it itself is a complete medicine. Following of Apathya ever in a healthy person is unwholesome and in the sick person it is highly harmful.
19.Pey¢Bhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Thin gruel of rice along with solid portion. It is prepared by boiling one part of coarsely ground rice with fourteen parts of water, till rice particles become soft. Pey¢ is light for digestive system, thus enhances digestive capacity and is the first meal eaten in Sa¼sarjana Krama
20.Ph¢´°aBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ It is the fifth and last Pa®cavidha Ka¾¢ya Kalpan¢, least potent of all and light for digestion. It is prepared by adding four parts of hot boiled water to one part of coarsely ground herb/s. Thereafter the drug is kept at room temperature for some time, churned well, filtered and supernatant is used. The shelf life of the drug is short and it should be consumed while it is still hot. Prescribed dose for intake is about ninety six milli litres.
21.Pi´²a SvedanaK¢yacikits¢ The term Pi´²a signifies a round or oval pellet, mass or body; and Svedana signifies fomentation. It refers to fomentation procedure performed with a bolus or pouch made of over cooked rice or paste of medicated herbs or sand. It tones the muscles and improves the circulation. The treatment is helpful especially in case of musculo-skeletal disorders. It removes stiffness and provides nourishment to the body. If the bolus of sand is used for fomentation, it is termed as B¢luk¢ (sand) Sveda.
22.Pi¾°IRasaº¢stra Literally means fine processed powder. It is a pharmaceutical preparation, usually of minerals prepared by triturating the drug with specified liquids under sun or moonlight, if specified. These preparations preserve their potency indefinitely. They are regarded as the An¢gnik¨ta Bhasma or calcined drugs prepared without thermal application.
23.‘Pitta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the three bodily humours (Do¾a). The term is derived from the root “Tap' which means “to burn’ or “to agitate'. Pitta is the representative of the fire in the human body. It is the ¡yurvedika principle of heat energy which governs all the chemical changes & metabolic transformations in the mind and body. Principally located in the middle part of the body between heart and umblicus, it is composed of Teja (fire) and Jala (water).In balance, it promotes understanding and intelligence. Otherwise it arouses anger, hatred and jealousy. It has five subtypes: Ra®jaka, S¢dhaka, Bhr¢jaka, P¢caka and ¡locaka. 2. Pitta (Mala of Rakta) is byproduct of Rakta Dh¢tu. It can be regarded as hepatic bile as the symptoms of Pitta V¨ddhi or its aggravation are similar to hyperbilirubinemia, e.g. yellow discolouration of skin, urine, feaces etc. It is related with blood as far as the location and physical properties are concerned. As a waste product it needs to be eliminated from the system as otherwise it may vitiate blood.
24.Pr¢k¨ta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The one that is natural. It refers to the bodily constituents and processes that are physiological and not pathological.
25.Pr¢´a’’¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Literally the term stands for the life energy which keeps the body alive and healthy. In ¡yurveda the term collectively refers to fire (Agni), moon (Soma), wind (V¢yu), Satva, Raja, Tama (Trigu´a), five sense organs (J®¢nendriya) and the empirical soul (¡tm¢). These twelve components constitute the vital life forces.
26.Pr¢´a V¢yu¹¢r¤rakriy¢ V¢yu is a Sa¼sk¨ta term meaning “air' or “breath'. Pr¢´a is the term for “vital energy' the one which makes life and all physical activities possible. The term collectively means the foremost or “primary air' or nervous force. One of the five subtypes of V¢ta, it is located in the regions of head, nose, tongue and the chest. Pr¢´a has mainly an inward movement. It serves to bring the external air, food and water inward; i.e. ingestion and inspiration. It moves downward through the throat to the chest. Breath is the external manifestation of Pr¢´a. It governs inhalation and swallowing as well as sneezing, spitting and belching. It governs the intake of impressions through the five senses that reside mainly in the head.
27.Pr¢´ay¢ma

Svasthav¨tta A combination of the Sa¼sk¨ta words Pr¢´a meaning life energy and ¡y¢ma meaning control or mastering. The term literally refers to the art of mastering the vital life force, i.e. the breath. It signifies the scientific breathing exercises which involve modulation and control of inhalation, exhalation and the retention of the vital energy. It helps in increasing the mental and physical endurance. It is the path to deeper relaxation and meditation and purifies the blood, vitalizes the internal organs and provides complete relaxation to the nervous system. It has been mentioned as the fourth principle of A¾°¢¬ga Yoga.
28.Prabh¢vaMaulika Siddh¢nta The effect or prominent, peculiar, specific mode of action of an herb. It is the power of drug to manifest action in its unique way. According to ¡yurveda, a drug produces effect in the body on the basis of its Rasa (taste), Gu´a (physio-chemical properties), V¤rya (potency) and Vip¢ka (drug metabolism) collectively or by the most dominant one out of these suppressing the weak. However, when Rasa, Gu´a, V¤rya, and Vip¢ka in a substance are found similar as in another substance, but in action the two substances differ, it is attributed to the “Prabh¢va' of that drug. For example, Dant¤ (Baliospermum montanum) has the same Rasa, Vip¢ka, V¤rya & Gu´a as Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica). But Dant¤ produces Virecana (purgation) while Citraka does not. Therefore, the action of purgation found in Danti can be attributed to its Prabh¢va.
29.Pradh¢naMaulika Siddh¢nta Sa¼sk¨ta term derived from the root “Pra' meaning “before' as the prefix and the verbal root “dha' meaning “to place'. Thus the term signifies the one which is placed first, or is in a primal position. It is used as a prefix in many terms, for example, Pradh¢na K¢ra´a (leading cause), Pradh¢na Lak¾a´a (cardinal sign), Pradh¢na Karma (main action) etc.
30.Pradh¢na KarmaK¢yacikits¢ Means the main therapeutic procedure or action. It is preceeded by P¦rva Karma and follwed by Paºc¢tKarma. 1. In K¢yacikitsa refers to Pa®ca Karma and signifies the five main bio-purificatory procedures, i.e.Vamana (therapeutic emesis), Virecana (therapeutic purgation), Anuv¢sana (oleation enema), Niruha (non-oleation enema) and Nasya (nasal insufflation). 2. In ¹alya Ta¼tra, refers to the main operative procedure.
31.Praj®¢par¢dhaRoga Nid¢na One of the three important causes of disease mentioned in ¡yurveda. Praj®¢ signifies correct knowledge, wisdom or intellect and Apar¢dha means crime or ''going against'. Hence the term refers to improper use of intellect or acting against correct knowledge. More specifically, it refers to a volitional transgression of right conduct. It is improper physical, vocal, and mental activity which results due to loss of Dh¤ (discrimination), Dh¨ti (conviction), and Sm¨ti (memory). It always leads to fallacious information, wrong conclusions and hazardous actions and hence disease. See Dh¤, Dh¨ti, Sm¨ti also.
32.PrakopaRoga Nid¢na Literally means aggravation or vitiation. Second Kriy¢K¢la. The term refers to second stage of disease manifestation characterized by provocation or aggravation of Do¾a at their usual or specific sites only, not spreading further. The vitiated Do¾a increases quantitatively accompanied with qualitative decrease. As a result, they provoke and irritate the local tissues.The end stage results in subtle physical and mental pre-symptoms produced by the vitiated Do¾a, but no recognizable features of any specific disease. This is a fully reversible stage.
33.Prak¨ti¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Literally means “nature' or natural form. “Pra' means beginning, commencement or source of origin; and “K¨ti' means to perform or to form. Collectively the terms means “natural form' or “original form' or original source. It refers to unique psychosomatic constitution of an individual. Prak¨ti is determined by a unique combination of the Trido¾a & Trigu´a. Both ¹¢r¤rika (physical) as well as M¢nasika (mental) Prak¨ti have been mentioned in ¡yurveda. However ¹¢r¤rika Prak¨ti has been given prime importance as far as diagnosis and treatment are concerned. ¡yurveda considers that Prak¨ti is formed at the time of inception of life on the basis of dominanat Do¾a and does not alter during the later phases.The predominant Do¾a can be any one of the three, two combined together or all the three in a balanced form, thus forming seven types of constitutions: V¢ta, Pitta, Kapha, V¢ta-Pitta,V¢ta-Kapha, Pitta-Kapha and Sannip¢taja. ¡yurveda places emphasis on understanding the particular constitution of an individual as the basis for prescribing a healing regimen. With the unique constitution determined by the physician, recommendations for diet, lifestyle, and therapy can be made accordingly.
34.Pram¢´aMaulika Siddh¢nta Refers to means of correct apprehension or valid knowledge. It signifies the means by which truth can be verified. ¡yurveda accepts four such means of correct knowledge or proofs; viz.1) Pratyak¾a or direct perception via the senses and mind. 2) Anum¢na or inferential knowledge from circumstantial evidences without making any direct perceptions 3) Yukti or analogical reasoning 4) ¹abda or verbal testimony, i.e. words spoken by a knowledgeable persons or references from very reliable literature. ¡yurveda accepts these as four means of knowledge in arriving at the truth of things.
35.Pram¢´aRoga Nid¢na The term literally refers to amount, quantity or measurement. Specifically for ¡yurvedika diagnosis, the term signifies the measures of general stature and physical proportionality of the patient. One of the factors mentioned in Daº¢vidha Par¤k¾¢, it is important in assessing the strength and ¡yu in an individual.
36.PramehaRoga Nid¢na The term is derived from the root “Mih-Si®cane' which means watering. In humans the term specifically refers to the urinary disorders. With “Pra' as the prefix, the term signifies excessive urination or polyurea. In ¡yurveda, the term Prameha holds twin meanings of “Prabhuta M¦trata' or excessive urination and “Avil M¦trata' or turbid urine. It is a generalised term for urinary disorders, genito-urinary and metabolic disorders and includes a wide variety of conditions like diabetes insipidus, glycosuria, albuminuria, chyluria and even diabetes mellitus that has been mentioned as Madhumeha in ancient classics.
37.PrasaraRoga Nid¢na The third Kriy¢k¢la which marks the onset of spread of disease. The term signifies the third stage of disease manifestation where accumulating vitiated or aggravated Do¾a start migrating from their original sites to whole body systems via the Srotasa or body channels. Classical symptoms (R¦pa) of a specific disease are not expressed in this particular stage but symptoms of vitiated Do¾a are expressed. In addition, due to the spreading nature of this stage, the symptoms are also not localized and can appear and disappear in different areas of the body.
38.Pras¦ti Ta¼traKaum¢ra Bh¨tya Branch of ¡yurveda dealing with obstetrics. One of the sixteen specialities of ¡yurveda that have been developed on the basis of A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda. It has been described as a part of Kaum¢ra Bh¨tya (paediatrics) in the A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda but was segregated and developed independently later on.
39.Pratyak¾aMaulika Siddh¢nta Sa¼sk¨ta term composed of two words “Prati' which stands for “in front' and “Ak¾a' which means “eye'. The term refers to direct perception, i.e. knowledge brought about by unhindered contact of sense-organs with their objects. It is the most immediate realisation, not only definite and unerring, but has a sense of immediacy or directness. It is most important and is regarded as superior to the other Pram¢´a. It is indepedent of previous knowledge, or inference or any manner of projection or conjecture.
40.P¨thv¤Maulika Siddh¢nta The element earth. One of the five eternal elements (Pa®camah¢bh¦ta), P¨thv¤ is the universal organizing principle of stability that characterizes structure and bulk of the material. It is the element which contains specific weight and on which rest of the Mah¢bh¦tas act. It has dominant characterstic feature of smell (Gandha). Since the element attributes to smell, nose is regarded as the sense organ of this element.
41.P¦rvakarma« K¢yacikits¢/¹alya Ta¼tra » Preliminary and pre-requisite essential produceres to be carried out before the main therapy. 1.In K¢yacikitsa, the term refers to pre-purification preparatory therapies for Pa®acakarma without which it is difficult to achieve adequate results. Its objective is to prepare the body tissues for the cleansing and release of toxins.The main preparatory practices include Snehana (oleation) and Svedana (fomentation). The procedures help to clear the channels (Srotasa) of the toxic overload, and move the imbalanced bio-energies to their sites for elimination. Pacana has also been mentioned as one of the preparatory procedure in the ancient texts. 2. ¹alya Ta¼tra, It refers to all the pre-operative preparations.
42.P¦rvar¦paRoga Nid¢na Second aspect of the five fold aetiological process i.e. Nid¢na Pa®caka. Literally meaning prior or antecedent form, it refers to early manifestations or premonitory symptoms of the disease which results from accumulation of the Do¾a at susceptible sites. It consists of symptoms that forebode a disease. It is recognized to be in two phases: general (S¢m¢nya) and specific (Viºe¾a). In the general phase, only future occurrence of some particular disease can be known but nothing more about underlying Do¾a disturbance; while in specific phase the Do¾a responsible for the ensuing disease become clear as well. Besides the identification of a specific disease, it is a valuable aid in determining the curability of the disease, the line of treatment and in the differential diagnosis of the disease.
43.Pu°aRasaº¢stra An ancient heating arrangement or furnace meant for preparation of Bhasma or Satva. It may be constructed below or above ground level in some definite and specified measures according to the amount of heat to be supplied. Metal or mineral to be heated is kept in a crucible placed in the middle of the furnace, the source of the energy being cowdung cakes. Various Pu°a has been mentioned for preparation of a particular Bhasma, e.g. Gaja Pu°a for Lauha (iron) Bhasma, Mah¢ Pu°a for Abhraka (mica) Bhasma
1.R¢jasika¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Pertaining to qualities of Rajas. It is regarded as one of the mental constitution resulting due to predominance of Rajas.The people in whom these qualities predominate are egoistic, ambitious, aggressive, proud and competitive and have a tendency to control others. Such persons tend to be violent in their disposition (bodily conduct, speech or thought).People belonging to this group are further classified into six types.
2.R¢jayak¾m¢Roga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for tuberculosis. Regarded as the king of diseases in ¡yurveda, it has been regarded so as the symptoms of the disease itself consist of group of disorders like K¢sa, ¹v¢sa etc and perhaps it was the leading cause of death in ancient times. According to Hindu mythology, Moon, the king among the satellites of the earth, was afflicted with this disease due to a curse of Brahma, the creator, and hence it was named the king's disease. Since the disease is characterised by loss of weight and other essential factors, it was also known as K¾aya in ancient times.
3.R¢tricary¢Svastha V¨tta Sa¼sk¨ta term for regimen to be followed at night. It is the routine that has been mentioned in ancient classical texts to be followed during evening or night to avoid vitiation of Do¾a. It includes the dietary items that need to be taken and the sleep patterns to be followed.
4.RajaPras¦ti Ta¼tra See ¡rtava.
5.Rajas¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term signifies one of the Trigu´a, the essential components or energies of mind. It is the most active component, the one which imparts motivation and initiative to the mind. It is the force or the energy of movement characterized by action, energy, passion and stimulation that leads to the life of sensual enjoyment, pleasure and pain, efforts and restlessness.The word is derived from the root followed.“Ra®j' which means to colour, the term is frequently used for vapour, mist and clouded atomosphere..
6.Rakta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the seven bodily components; second most important after Rasa, it is the bodily fluid, i.e. blood. As per ¡yurvedika physiology, it is formed by the action of the Ra®jaka Pitta on the subtle aspect of the chyle (Rasa), which results in red colour to the blood. Composed of Jala and Agni as the basic elements, its principle seats are liver and the spleen and function is preservation of life (J¤van¤yam). It nourishes the other bodily constituents, more specifically re-inforces the succeeding constituent i.e.M¢¼sa. It vitalizes and maintains normal activities of life. It also endows on the body the natural glow of complexion.
7.Raktamok¾a´a

¹alyaTa¼tra Therapeutic blood letting. Regarded as one of the five purificatory procedures (Pa®cakarmma) by Suºruta, it is an invasive procedure which is used for management of diseases caused by vitiation of Rakta and Pitta.This is done either by puncturing the vessels by sharp instruments (venesection/ ¹iravedha) or application of leeches (Jal¦k¢) or by suction with the help of horn etc. The therapy is used for treatment of skin disorders, abscesses, gout, allergies, liver and spleen enlargements. It is more useful for treatment of chronic disorders which do not respond to other treatments.
8.Ra®jaka Pitta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term literally means the one that imparts colour. One of the five sub-types of Pitta, situated in the areas of liver and spleen, imparts pigment to subtle aspect of chyle (Rasa) and transforms it into blood (Rakta). It imparts colour to bile and stool also.
9.RasaDravyagu´a The term has multiple meanings in ¡yurveda including juice, taste and essence. In ¡yurvedic pharmacology, it is regarded as one of the principle characterstics of the Dravya .i.e. the taste. It imparts the first direct and immediate action of the drug which is expressed when the drug comes in contact with the tongue, sense organ of taste .There are six types of tastes, commonly termed as ½a²arasa viz. Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour), Lava´a (saline), Ka°u (pungent),Tikta (bitter) and Ka¾¢ya (astringent). The existence of different types of tastes is attribuated to varying Pa®acabhautika composition. Each Rasa has a specific pacifying or vitiating effect on the Do¾a and the Dravya is selected keeping in view the Rasa and the predominent Do¾a in the body of the patient.
10.RasaRasaº¢stra The term signifies the principal element, i.e. mercury, used in ¡yurvedic pharmaceutics. The element has been named so because of its semi-fluid character and capacity to liquify all the other metals and imbibe them into it. It has miraculous curative powers. See P¢rada also.
11.Rasa¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Derived from the root “Ras' meaning “to move', the term signifies the food-essence and the body sap. It is the end product of digestion of food. Regarded as the first and most important among the seven bodily constituents, it is the substantial aspect of the food that is properly digested. It nourishes not only the immediately next constituent, viz Rakta, but all the succeeding bodily constituents. It circulates throughout the body and provides a soothing effect on entire system (Pr¤´ana). It is concerned with the conservation, transformation, and revitalization of energy. Apart from nourishing the body, it boosts the immunity and helps to keep the body and mind in best of health.
12.Rasaº¢straMaulika Siddh¢nta The term literally means “science of mercury'. It refers to branch of ¡yurveda dealing with processing and therapeutic use of metals, minerals and allied products. It is the science of making metals and minerals assimilable to human body so that these can be utilised as medicines.The branch principally deals with pharmaceutical preparations of mercury which is the term for Rasa.
13.Rasau¾adhiRasaº¢stra Medicaments or preparations containing metals or minerals as the main ingredient. Though all the formulations of metals and minerals are regarded as Rasau¾adhi, the term specifically refers to the formulations containing Rasa or mercury. Mercury is considered to be the king of all the therapeutically usable metals and minerals in ¡yurveda and hence called as Rasendra.
14.Ras¢yanaA¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda One of the eight clinical specialties of ¡yurveda which includes the rejuvenative therapies which regenerate body and mind and prevents ageing.The term Rasa signifies the fundamental body fluid while Ayana means the way, i.e. movement or circulation. Hence, the term refers to transport of the nutritive essence thoughout the body, nourishing and maintaining cells and systems, encouraging the growth of new cells and expelling damaged cells and toxins. It includes therapeutic procedures, i.e use of certain drugs and measures which prevent or retard the process of ageing, impart longevity, immunity and resistance against diseases. It increases life span and memory. The therapy involves use of certain drugs of plant or mineral origin which act by improving the digestive power or raising the nutrirtional value of Rasa or cleansing or toning up of body channels i.e. Srotasa. In modern terms, the drugs and the therapy can be regarded as adaptogenic agents which act through nutraceutical dynamics.There are two methods of therapy in vogue: one involves confinement of the patient in a specially constructed cottage over a length of time (Ku°ipr¢veºika). It is an intense type of treatment which isolates the patient from human contact as well as physical surroundings (including sun and fresh air). The other permits patient's exposure to sun and fresh air while allowing him to pursue normal avocations (V¢t¢tapika). A third type has been described as ¡c¢ra Ras¢yana or following the right codes of conduct.
15.RecakaDravyagu´a Literally the term means expulsion. Derived from the verbal root “Rec' meaning to empty or to purge. 1. It refers to the stage of exhalation in Pr¢´ay¢ma (breath control). 2. As mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology, it is one of the pharmacodynamic actions of drugs mentioned in ¡yurveda. It refers to the drugs which makes the feaces watery and expels it forcibly wheather formed or not. Thus these are the purging medicines which stimulate evacuation of bowels. For example, Trivrita (Operculina turpethum).
16.§tucary¢Svastha V¨tta The term stands for seasonal conduct / regimen. Indian year has been divided into six seasons of two months each namely ¹iºira, Vasanta, Gr¤¾ma, Var¾¢, ¹arada and Hemanta. Each season has a characterstic impact on the human body. To negate the impacts injurious to health, a specific conduct needs to be followed which has been mentioned as §tucary¢ in the ancient classical texts. Similar to the daily routine, seasonal regimen is also a necessary part of hygiene and preventive medicine. The prescribed seasonal conduct for each season includes the diet and the drinks to be taken or avoided, residence, clothing, rest, exercise, prophylactic measures that are appropriate to climatic conditions. It is advised that one should gradually leave the regimen of ongoing season and adopt that of the coming season.
17.RogaRoga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term for disease. It is derived from the root “Ruk' which stands for pain and it is defined as the condition which impairs quality of life and is characterised by presence of pain or discomfort in the body as well as mental affliction. See Gada also.
18.Ruk¾a´aK¢yacikits¢ One of the six preparatory treatments (Upakrama), literally the term means the one which creates dryness. Regarded as one of the three depleting therapies (La¬ghana), the term signifies the dehydration therapy. It is useful for treatment of excess Pitta and Kapha.The drugs used for this therapy have characterstic properties like light, hot, sharp, rough, mobile and hardness. The therapy involves the intake of pungent (Ka°u), bitter (Tikta) and astringent (Ka¾¢ya) substances. It is best suited for conditions where the channels of circulation are obstructed and there is an excessive dominance of the aggravated Do¾a for example spasticity of the thighs, gout and urinary disorders.
19.R¦k¾aDravyagu´a One of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in Ayurvedic pharmacology, the term literally refers to dry, arid and non-greasy. It is principally composed of P¨thv¤, Agni and V¢yu. The property aggravates V¢ta and pacifies Kapha. It generates dryness, hardness, and roughness over the body. Its main function is ¹o¾a´a (to absorb), besides developing roughness, hardness and destroying strength and complexion. As for therapeutic benefits, the drugs having this property are Av¨¾ya (non-aphrodisiac) and a Stambhan (cease secretions) and are thus useful in diseases of excessive secretion e.g. diarrhoea.
20.R¦paRoga Nid¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term that literally means what can be visualised, i.e. a form, image, figure or appearance. Third aspect of the aetiological process of diagnosis (Nid¢na Pa®caka), it denotes the cardinal signs and symptoms of the disorder. Regarded as the definite expression of the pre-monitory symptoms i.e. P¦rvar¦pa, its knowledge plays an important role in identifying the specific nature of disease.Without its proper knowledge, the physician can not effectively speculate the dianosis as well as the line of treatment of the disease. It has been mentioned as of two kinds: S¢m¢nya i.e. generalised symptoms or the total nature of disease and Viºe¾a, i.e. the specific individual symptoms as per Do¾a predominance on which alone the nature of disease rests.
1.Sadharana RasaRasaº¢stra A group of eight simple minerals used in Ayurveda viz. Kampillaka(Mallotus phillippinensis), Malla(white arsenic), Navasadara(ammonium chloride), Kaparda(cowrie), Agnijara(Ambergis), Girisindura(Red oxide of Mercury), Hingula(Cinnabar) and Mrddarasankha(Litharge).
2.¹¢l¢kyaA¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda The term “¹¢l¢kya' has been derived from the root ¹al¢k¢ which means a lancet or probe. It refers to the branch of ¡yurveda which employs the usage of a probe for management of diseases. It is regarded as the branch which deals with management of diseases that inflict the organs above collar bone (Urdhvajatrugata Roga), i.e. eyes, ears, nose, throat and the oral cavity. Since all the organs are deep seated and a probe is required to visulise their internals, it has been named so. It is a multi-faceted branch which incorporates the modern specialties of ENT, opthalmology and oto-laryngology.
3.¹alyaA¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda The term literally means a foreign body or material which bothers the psyche or physical body. It is the branch of A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda which deals with extraction various types of foreign bodies that have been producing disorders. Regarded as a significant branch of ¡yurveda, it originated from the sage-physician Suºruta, who is also considered the father of plastic surgery. The branch was popular since ancient times as this could give fast relief as compared to the slow process of recovery from medicines or herbs. Caraka, the best-known physician of ancient medicine also recommended it in treatment of certain diseases, which required immediate attention like bleeding piles and Udara Roga. It incorporates the modern speciality of surgery.
4.¹¢r¤ra¹¢r¤ra Racan¢ Derived from the root ¹¤r¾ayate, meaning to be broken down, the term is used for human body, signifying the underlying catabolic processes and the ultimate mortal nature. Mentioned to be one of the constituents of ¡yuª, it is the foundation for consiousness, an aggregate of five primary forms of matter and their modifications. It has been defined to be comprising of the three basic structures i.e. Do¾a, Dh¢tu and Mala.
5.¹¤taDravyagu´a Sa¼sk¨ta term signifying property of coldness of the matter. It is one of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology. Antagonist to the U¾´a Gu´a (hotness), it is principally composed of Jala and is characterstic of Madhura, Tikta and Ka¾¢ya Rasa. It aggravates Kapha and V¢ta while pacifies the Pitta. The drugs having this property are capable of curing M¦rcch¢ (syncope), T¨¾´¢ (thirst) and D¢ha (burning sensation) in the body. Its main function being Stambhan (cease secretions) and it increases the strength and immunity power as well.
6.¹ira¹¢r¤ra Racan¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term for head or skull. The uppermost part of body, it is regarded as Uttam¢¬ga i.e. the supreme organ which controls functions of the whole body system.
7.¹le¾aka Kapha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ Derived from the root “¹li¾ ¡li¬gane' which means to be moist or sticky, it is one of the five subtypes of Kapha which lubricates. Located in the joints as the synovial fluid, it binds the joints together thus affording ease of movement by reducing the friction.
8.¹le¾am¢¹¢r¤rakriy¢ See Kapha.
9.¹odhanaK¢yacikits¢ Purification therapy. It is the detoxification through Pa®acakarma. See Sa¼ºodhana also.
10.¹odhanaRasaº¢stra Means purification. In ¡yurvedika pharmaceutics, the term refers to process of detoxification of minerals, metals and poisonous herbal drugs in order to remove the inherent impurities and the toxic effects. The process not only removes the impurities but also potentiates the properties and actions of the metals and minerals. It renders the metals and minerals suitable for the process of M¢ra´a.
11.¹ukraKriy¢ ¹¢r¤ra It is the last of the seven bodily constituents which is the generative fluid, derived from the Majj¢. Although in Sa¼sk¨ta the term refers to the male reproductive part or the semen, as a Dh¢tu it signifies the last bodily constituent which is responsible for production of progeny both in males as well as females. It contributes to strength, complexion and nourishment in both men and women. Suºruta is the first to accept the presence of ¹ukra in females.
12.S¢dhaka Pitta¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The term is derived from the root “S¢dh' which means to acccomplish or to realize. One of the five sub-types of Pitta, it signifies the fire or body energy that determines the truth or reality. Located in heart, it functions through the nervous system & senses and governs intellect and intelligence. It thus empowers the mind and is responsible for intelligence, knowledge, memory, enthusiasm and consciousness.
13.Sam¢na V¢yu¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the five sub-types of V¢ta, it is regarded as the balancing or equalizing air (Sama-ana). It is nervous force behind the digestive system. Located between the stomach and the intestines, it governs digestion of food materials, separation of waste products and regulation of composition of body fluids as well as body temperature.
14.Sa¼sarjana KramaK¢yacikits¢ Post- Pa®cakarma regimen or the Paºc¢t Karma of Pa®cakarma therapy. After the removal of Do¾as and internal cleansing, the digestive capacity of the individual becomes low and has to be restored. This is achieved through properly planned and gradual changes in diet and lifestyle called as Sa¼sarjana Krama. It involves special post-therapy dietetic regimen which is designed to restore the digestive fire and absorptive capacity of the person, thus restoring him to a normal state of healths and involves intake of light diet initially and gradually proceeding towards the normal balanced diet.
15.Sa¼ºamanaK¢yacikits¢ Pacification therapy, also known as ¹amana.. One of the three principle types of treatments mentioned in ¡yurveda, it signifies the treatment therapies which are intended to pacify the vitiated Do¾a at their sites of aggravation without cleansing through drugs, diet and conduct. Thus, the calming or pacifying therapies combine medications and diet with recommendations concerning lifestyles. Apart from use of drugs and diet which are digestive, appetite promoting, the conduct is also instrumental in pacification of Do¾a which can be physical, verbal as well as mental.
16.Sa¼ºodhanaK¢yacikits¢ One of the three principal types of treatments mentioned in ¡yurveda, it signifies the cleansing therapy which involves elimination of waste products including the vitiated Do¾a from the system.The therapy is administered through five therapeutic procedures of Pa®acakarma namely Vamana (emesis), Virecana (purgation), Anuv¢sana (unctuous enema), ¡sth¢pana (non-unctuous/ decoction enema) and ¹irovirecana (nasal insufflation) and can thus also be defined as Internal purification throughPa®acakarma. It is recommended as beneficial prior to all methods of treatment specially the rejuvenation (Ras¢yana). The therapy is aimed at radical removal of the disease factors and complete restoration of health. It detoxifies the body and mind.
17.Sai¼dhava

Rasaº¢stra Sa¼sk¨ta term for Rock salt. It is named after the Indus region where it is found. It is extensively used in ¡yurveda both as a drug and as an adjunct to the drug. Regarded as the best among all the salts used in ¡yurveda, it is the only one which is cold in potency (¹¤taV¤rya). It is an appetiser, improves the digestive power and is beneficial for the eyes. It acts on all the three Do¾a and is capable of entering even the minutest parts of the body since it is S¦k¾ma.
18.Sa®cayaRoga Nid¢na First Kriy¢k¢la marked by the stage of accumulation of vitiated Do¾a. In this stage the particular dosha remains at its natural site but increases in quantitiy and deteriorates in quality. Signs and symptoms of these are seen and the patient desires for the activities or measures that are opposite to the causative factors. It can be natural (as per the seasons) as well as pathological (due to unhealthy diet and lifestyle regimen).
19.SaraDravyagu´a Literally meaning mobile, it is one of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology. Regarded as the characterstic of Jala, it is the opposite of Sthira and aggravates the Kapha. Its main function is to provoke Do¾a into action. It is responsible for breaking the bond and release Mala (excretory product) from the body. It is useful in ¹odhana Cikits¢ (evacuation therapy).
20.Sira¹¢r¤ra Racan¢ The term literally means tubular vessels through which the fluid flows. It signifies the fine capillaries, arteries, veins or ducts. More specifically, it refers to the blood vessels specially the veins. Primarily forty on basis of Do¾a and seven hundred in total, these originate from the region of umblicus (N¢bhi) and spread out over the entire body.These vessels carry V¢ta, Pitta, Kapha and Rakta in the body and thus nourish and support the body. These are also used as pathways for blood letting in ancient times (Sir¢vedhana), which was regarded as a curative measure.
21.Sm¨ti¹¢r¤rakriy¢/ K¢ya cikits¢ Refers to power of recollection or the memory of an individual.
22.Sn¢yu¹¢r¤ra Racan¢ Translated as ligament, the term signifies the tendinous portions of the muscle fibres which prevade the muscle both within and outside. About nine hundred ligaments have been mentioned in ancient classics. Regarded as important structures of body in ¡yurveda, injury to it has been mentioned to cause much more serious disturbances in the functioning of organs of action than injury to bone (Asthi), blood vessels (Sira), muscles (M¢¼sa) and joints (Sa¼dhi) including paralysis, loss of limbs and even death.
23.SnehaPad¢rtha Vij®¢na Sa¼sk¨ta term signifying love and affection, the term specifically refers to the unctuous substances used in ¡yurveda for Snehana (oleation therapy). The unctuous substances can be of vegetable origin i.e. Taila or of animal origin i.e. Gh¨ta, Vas¢ and Majj¢. Of these four types, Gh¨ta is considered the best.
24.SnehanaK¢yacikits¢ Sa¼sk¨ta term signifying the oleation therapy. It is one of the six preparatory treatments (Upakrama), which is the principal nourishing therapy. It also forms the component of the pre-purification therapy (P¦rvakarma) of thePa®acakarma. It is a method of lubricating the system with unctuous substances externally as well as internally. On the basis of route of lubrication, it has been further categorised into B¢hya Snehana (external oleation) and ¡bhy¢ntara Snehana (internal oleation). While external oleation involves oil massages and oil bath (Abhya¬ga), internal oleation involves internal administration of medicated oils and Gh¨ta. The method renders the system smooth, liquifies the vitiated Do¾a to make them easily extractable. The therapeutic effects of the therapy include good lusture of skin, good digestion, and feeling of lightness in the body, sensory acuity and mental alertness.
25.SnigdhaDravyagu´a One of the twenty physio-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology, the term literally refers to viscid, unctuous, smooth and adhesive. It is principally composed of P¨thv¤ and Jala. The property aggravates Kapha while pacifying V¢ta. It generates unctousness, softness and moistens removing the dryness, hardness, and roughness over the body. Its main function is to strenthen, soften and promote complexion. As for therapeutic benefits, the drugs having this property are V¨¾ya (aphrodisiac) and B¨ha¼´a (nourishing/bulk promoting).
26.SrotasaKriy¢ ¹¢r¤ra The term refers to ducts or canal like structures or channels of circulation or hollow tracts within the body which comprise of the empty space and have openings through which they spread the nutrients to all parts of body for nourishment and growth or transport waste products of body metabolism. These are the channels of circulation that constitute a network of open spaces within the body. Health of the system is maintained by proper functioning of these channels. Srotasa also transport Do¾a and may be vitiated by their vitiation. Disease results if the circulation of these channels is arrested or impeded. In case of any morbidity, Sa¼ºodhana therapy is employed i.e. purifications of body channels.
27.SthiraDravyagu´a Literally meaning firm and unmovable, it is one of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology. Regarded as the characterstic of P¨thv¤, it aggravates Kapha and suppresses the V¢ta in the body. It stabilizes the physiological structures and functions. The property is responsible for obstruction of channels (Srotasa Avarodha) also.
28.Sth¦laDravyagu´a One of the twenty physico-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology, it refers to bulkiness. Characterstic of P¨thv¤, it aggravates the Kapha. Its function is to promote bulkiness, strengthen the joints, promote complexion, and strength. The drugs having this property are difficult to digest.
29.S¦k¾maDravyagu´a One of the twenty physio-pharmacological qualities of the drugs mentioned in ¡yurvedika pharmacology, it refers to the minuteness or fineness. Characterstic of V¢yu, Teja and ¡k¢ºa, it aggravates the V¢ta. Its function is to pierce (Vivara´a), as a result it enters even into the minutest channels of the body. The drugs having this property are easily digestible.
30.SvasthaSvasthav¨tta Sa¼sk¨ta term which signifies a healthy human body. It is a state of balanced co-ordination amongst ¡tm¢, Indriya, and Manah.
31.Sirodhara

K¢yacikits¢ A special form of oil therapy, characterized by pouring medicated oil/ghrta/buttermilkof as a steady stream over the forehead. It is effective in alleviating vata related disorders and mental disorders due to stress and tension. Sirodhara is good for improving memory. Other effects of shirodhara are sound sleep and a soothing effect on mind and body. The medicinal herbs used in the preparation of the dhara fluid, determine the effectiveness of the therapy.
1.TakraDravyagu´a Means buttermilk. It is one of the pharmaceutical preparations prepared by churning curd mixed with water and removing butter from it. It is Madhura, Amla & Ka¾¢ya in Rasa and appetizing, light on digestion and “Gr¢h¤', i.e. facilitates digestion and intestinal absorption of digestive juices. It is widely prescribed in treatment of Graha´¤ (irritable bowel syndrome) & non-infective dirrahoea.
2.Tamakaºv¢saK¢yacikits¢ Fifth type of ¹v¢sa Roga (respiratory disorders) characterized by difficulty in breathing which occurs in paroxyms and is aggravated by mental and enviromental factors.When accompanied with fever, it is called Pratamaka ¹v¢sa and with Pitta predominance, it is called Sa¼tamaka ¹v¢sa. It can be co-related with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPD) on the basis of signs and symptoms present. It is a Y¢pya Roga; i.e. palliative disease. See Y¢pya Roga also.
3.TamasMaulika Siddh¢nta The word is derived from the root “Tam' and represents darkness, inertia and heaviness. It is broadly used to signify Aj®¢na (lack of knowledge).
4.Tamo Gu´aK¢yacikits¢ One of three qualities pertaining to the psyche. It has the basic qualities of “Guruta' or heaviness and “¡var´aka' or the one which conceals and repersents mental darkness, delusion, lack of knowledge or ignorance (Aj®¢na). Due to heaviness, it suppresses and controls Rajas and Satva. It is associated with inertia or Jaåat¢ and is opposite to Rajas.
5.Tanm¢tr¢Maulika Siddh¢nta Precursor of the Sth¦la Mah¢bh¦ta or the five essential elements.These are the S¦k¾ma Mah¢bh¦ta which represent the minutest undivided particle of matter and confer the specific physico-chemical properties to the A´u or the atoms which in turn combine to form the molecules of all the life forms. They are the subtle elements formed by the permutation and combination of three attributes of Prak¨ti - Satva, Rajas and Tamas. They associate in definite proportions to give rise to the five basic elements or the Mah¢bh¦ta owing to an inherent tendency to associate. There are fiveTanm¢tr¢s namely P¨thv¤, Jala, Tejas, V¢yu and Ak¢ºa.
6.T¢pa SvedaK¢yacikits¢ A type of dry thermal sudation where heat is given to the affected part by means of heated cloth, sand, bricks, plates or rubbing the palms together, specially in case of children and over the eyes.
7.Tarpaka Kapha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the five subtypes of Kapha. It is located in head and nourishes supports and soothes the Masti¾ka or the brain and Indriya or the sensory organs by the virtue of its Snehana qualities. It can be co-related with the cerebro-spinal fluid which also performs similar functions.
8.TejaMaulika Siddh¢nta Means the one that is illuminiscent, brilliant and sparkling. It is one of the five procreating elements and represents Pitta in the form of fire.
9.T¤k¾´aDravyagu´a Literally stands for sharp and irritant. One of twenty pharmacodynamical properties of Dravya characterized by its purificatory properties and rapid action. It makes the body light, does not allow the structural elements (Dh¢tu) to proliferate and may produce burning sensation, inflammation and oozing of fluids. It is derived from Agni Mah¢bh¦ta; e.g. Bhallataka (marking nut). It is opposite to Manda.
10.T¤k¾´¢gni¹¢r¤rakriy¢ / K¢ya Cikitsa A type of vitiated Ja°har¢gni or the digestive fire which is sharp, aggravated or excited. In this state it is under the influence of vitiated Pitta and easily digests heavy meals in a short time producing a voracious appetite. If the food is not supplied in time, it may consume the body reserves. Such a Pitta produces parched throat, dry palate and burning sensation in the body.
11.Trido¾aDravyagu´a Refers to bitter taste. One of the six Rasas, it is derived from the V¢yu and ¡k¢ºa Mah¢bh¦ta. It is Ruk¾a (dry), ¹¤ta (cold) and Laghu (light) and pacifies the Pitta and Kapha Do¾a. It is appetizing, wormifuge, quenches thirst and digests ¡ma. Excess consumption causes destruction of structural constituents which are rich in water and fat contents like Med¢ & Vas¢ (adipose tissue), Majj¢ (marrow) & Lasik¢ (lymph).
12.Trido¾a¹¢r¤rakriy¢ V¢ta, Pitta & Kapha. The three (Tri) bodily humours (Do¾a) on which the ideology of ¡yurveda is based. These form the fundamental principles of ¡yurvedika physiology on which the concept of health has been conceived. In a healthy body and state of equilibrium they nourish and support all the activities of the body and are termed as “Dh¢tu'. They are suceptible to imbalance and vitiation of self and other structures and production of diseases due to unhealthy diet & regimens and are then termed as “Do¾a'. In the state of equilibrium these three fundamental factors maintain the integrity of the human body
13.Trigu´a¹¢r¤rakriy¢ The three mental humours or psychic components. These are the Satva, Rajas & Tamas. In state of equilibrium they together maintain proper mental acquity. Especially of these, Satva is considered as a Gu´a more than a Do¾a, responsible for knowledge, mental peace and clarity. Rajas & Tamas are suceptible to imbalance and lead emergence of desire, infatuation, anger, greed, arrogance, fear and lack of knowledge.
14.T¨¾´¢K¢yacikits¢ Literally, it stands for thirst. Excessive and unquenchable thirst has been described as a disease under Pitta N¢n¢tmaja diseases.
1.Ud¢na V¢yu¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the subtypes of V¢ta Do¾a. Literally the word means to breathe upwards. It is located in the Ka´°ha i.e. chest & neck and governs Bala (strength), Var´a (complexion), Sm¨ti (memory) and especially Bh¢¾a´a (verbal speech).
2.Udaka Vaha¹¢r¤rakriy¢ One of the types of Srotas or channels of transportation. Literally Udaka means Jala or water and here it represents the channels which transport liquid substances, specially the lymph. They are two in number, arising from T¢lu (palate) and Kloma (Laryngo -trachea). Their vitiation causes drying of lips and tongue, a parched throat and unquenchable thirst. Damage to them may cause instant death. See T¨¾´¢ also.
3.Udvartana

K¢yacikits¢ A type of dry massage conducted like an Abhya¬ga but with a dry medium, i.e. powders or pastes of herbs instead of oil. It reduces the Kapha and Med¢ and cleanses the skin and makes it soft. Dry massages help in increasing the surface circulation and contouring the body.
4.Upadh¢tu« Kriy¢º¢r¤ra/ Rasaº¢stra » Subsidiary or secondary structural units derived as the by-products of the Pras¢da (pure form) of the Dh¢tu. Their main function is to support the body. They do not undergo transformation or nourish the body as their precursors (Dh¢tu). These are seven viz. Stanya & ¡rtava (derived from Rasa Dh¢tu); Ka´²ar¢ & Sira (Rakta); six dermal layers & Vas¢ (M¢¼sa); Sn¢yu (Med¢). 2. In Rasaº¢stra, it refers to subsidiary minerals. See Annex- 2
5.Upan¢ha Sveda

K¢yacikits¢ A type of fomentation where heat application is done through poultice or pastes and plasters. Dry or wet medication may be used as per the requiremint.
6.UparasaRasaº¢stra The seven subsidiary minor minerals viz. Gandhaka (sulphur), Gairika (red ochre), K¢s¤sa (iron sulphate), Sphatika (alum), Harit¢la (orpiment), Manaªºil¢ (realgar), A®jana (galena) & Ka¼ku¾°ha (exudate of Garcinia morella). See Annex- 2
7.UpaºayaK¢yacikits¢ Literally it means the one which is “wholesome eventually'. In ¡yurveda, it stands for therapeutic test and is one of the five diagnostic tools of Nid¢na Pa®caka employed for differential diagnosis between “G¦åhali¬ga Vy¢dhi' or diseases whose signs and symptoms closely resemble. Diffential diagnosis is made on basis of the beneficial effect of diet, daily regimen and medication, which may be antagonistic or synergistic (anti-cause, anti-disease or anti-cause & disease), in a diseased or which may appear as acting against but is not in real (Vipar¤t¢rthak¢r¤ or contrary in effect). It is righty termed as “S¢tmya' or the one which is suitable for the body, on basis of the beneficial effects derived. Eighteen types of “Upaºaya' have been described in ¡yurveda.
8.UpastambhaK¢yacikits¢ Literally the term means “the sub pillars'. Like the pillars (Trido¾a) support the main structure or the body, the sub pillars act in conjuction with them in maintaing the intergrity of the body These are three in ¡yurvedic philosophy-the ¡h¢ra, Svpana or Nidra & Brahmacarya; meaning thereby the food consumed, the sleep and self control with intelligent handling of sexual energy respectively. Ahara is placed foremost as we are what we eat and food is a must for the survival of this body. The bodily and spiritual growth of a person is determined entirely on this one factor. Second comes the Nidra.When the Mana and Indriyas are fatigued, the sleep is induced naturally to replenish the energy and rejuvenate the body. Hence it also forms an important pillar of support to the body. Last is the Brahmacarya which more than abstainence here denotes control of self and senses. Collectively these three factors act like sub-pillars which maintain the integrity of the human body and are beneficial for spiritual growth of an individual.
9.Upayoga Sa¼sth¢K¢yacikits¢ The correct technique to practice or implement instructions. These have been described in context of “¡h¢ravidhi Viºe¾¢yatana' or practical guidelines for consuming a wholesome diet.
10.U¾´aDravyagu´a Literally means hot or warm. One of the twenty pharmaco- dynamical properties of Dravya. It is derived from the Agni Mah¢bh¦ta which increases the bodily heat and causes Svedana. It has stimulant action on digestive system and increases appetite and facilitates digestion of ¡ma; for e.g. Citraka. Physically it can felt by sense of touch i.e. skin.
11.Uts¢dana¹alyaTa¼tra Thirty fifth of the sixty methods to treat a Vra´a. It refers to application of ointments which stimulate growth of tissue and elevation of surface in a dry wound with hollowed edges and less amount of connective tissue.
12.Uttam¢¬ga ¹¢l¢kya / ¹alyaTa¼tra Uttama' refers to the best and 'A¬ga' refers to part. In ¡yurveda it refers to the head which is the seat of Mana and the other Indriyas and is hence the best amongst all other body parts.
13.Uttara BastiK¢yacikits¢ One of the types of Basti where therapeutic enema of medicated liquids is given into urethera in males or urethera or vagina in females. The word “Uttara' depicts two meanings - “the superior' the other “the one that follows'. Therefore some consider it as the Basti which is given via the superior orifice and others the Basti which is given following ¡sth¢pana & Anuv¢sana Basti.
1.VaidyaK¢yacikits¢ The Sa¼sk¨ta term for a physician. In ¡yurveda, a qualified physician is the one who has adequate theoretical knowledge, practical experience and skill and purity of body, mind and speech. Six qualities of a good Vaidya have been described as Vidy¢ (clarity of knowledge), Vitarka (a rational & critical approach); Vij®¢na (wide knowledge); Sm¨ti (a good memory); Tatpart¢ (devotion to profession); and Kriy¢ (constantly improving oneself practically). Such a physician has been called as Pr¢´¢bhisara or the one who brings life back in a dying man.
2.VamanaK¢yacikits¢ It is therapeutic emesis or vomiting induced in a person for a bio- purification or treatment of a disoder. The first in the series of Pa®cakarma, it may be performed in succession with other procedures or alone. Vamana Karma acts upto the level of Amasaya, i.e.seat of Kapha Do¾a (stomach & first part of small intestine) and eliminates the accumulating Do¾a. It has been described as the best treatment for vitiated Kapha. An adequate Vamana is Pitt¢nta i.e. the one that ends with billious vomiting. The agent applied to induce the procedure is called as “Vamaka Dravya', of which Madanaphala (Randia spinosa) is the best.
3.V¢manaK¢yacikits¢ V¢mana was of the reincarnations of the hindu god, Vi¾´u. The term stands for a dwarf. It is one of the V¢ta N¢n¢tmaja Vik¢ra (a disorder arising from V¢ta Do¾a alone). When vitiated, V¢ta may lead to either gigantism or a stunted growth. V¢ta governs all the nervous functions and when vitiated, the condition may result due to endocrinal imbalance at the level of pitutary or the hypothalamus.
4.V¢j¤kara´aK¢yacikits¢ Eighth branch of A¾°¢¬ga ¡yurveda which deals with semenology and the study of aphrodisiacs. The basic aim of this branch is the production of good quality ¹ukra or semen which inturn will produce a better progeny. It deals with treatment of Alpa (oligospermia), Du¾°a (vitiated by Dosa) K¾¤´a (weak sperms) and ¹u¾ka (dried semen or aspermia) V¤rya (semen) and the methods and medication for its Pu¾°i (nourishment), ¹odhana (purification),V¨ddh¤ (qualitative & quantitative increase)and Utpatti (origin).
5.Varti

¹alyaTa¼tra A suppository. Medicinal drugs made in form of a finger for introduction at specific sites for local action, like rectum, vagina and eyes etc.
6.VastiK¢yacikits¢ See Basti.
7.V¢taK¢yacikits¢ One of the three bodily humours present in human body according to ayurvedic principles. The paramount functional component of the human body arising from the ¡k¢ºa and V¢yu Mah¢bh¦ta and is predominantly R¢jasika. The term is derived from the root “V¢ Gati Gandhanyo' which means movement or to induce, infuse, to make down and to become aware of or to enlighten and effort. Enthusiasm, inspiration and expiration, voluntary actions like talking and walking, circulation of Rakta and the nutrients throughout the body and elimination of wastes from the body are the natural functions of V¢ta. Among the three Do¾a, V¢ta is the most powerful and it controls the functioning of both Pitta and Kapha.
8.V¢ta Vy¢dhiK¢yacikits¢ Eighty diseases caused by vitiation V¢ta Do¾a alone. Also termed as the V¢ta -N¢n¢tmaja Vik¢ra. Most disorders arise as a result of imbalance between the three Do¾a but in these disorders, only V¢ta Do¾a is vitiated. For e.g. Urustambha, B¢dhirya, Nakhabheda, Vip¢dik¢ etc.
9.V¢yuK¢yacikits¢ See V¢ta
10.VedaK¢yacikits¢ The term stands for acquisition of knowledge or science. ¡yurveda (¡yuª + Veda) is the comprehensive knowledge of the science of longevity and is derived from Atharvaveda, the fourth Veda. See ¡yuª also.
11.Vid¢h¤Dravyagu´a Stands for the one which is heating, burning, acidic and causes inflammation. One of the pharmacodynamical properties of Dravya. Such substances cause heartburn and acidity with poor digestion.
12.V¤ryaDravyagu´a Refers to potency. It is the power or capacity of a drug to produce an effect on the basis of Dravya as a whole or some of its pharmacodynamical property. It may be regarded that by the virtue of its active principle, a substance produces an effect and this capacity of an active principle is its “V¤rya'. Two, eight & fifteen types of V¤rya have been described by various scholars, though two types i.e. U¾´a (hot) and ¹ita (cold) are common.
13.Vik¢s¤Dravyagu´a One of the pharmacodynamical properties of Dravya by the virtue of which it sucks away and takes out the vitality or the strength from the Dh¢tu (body structures) and loosens the joints; causing depression and slackness; e.g. Kramuka (Areca catechu) & Kodrava (Paspalum scrobiculatum)
14.Vik¨tiK¢yacikits¢/ Maulika Siddh¢nta Means a state of disequilibrium, imbalance or deficiency or an excess from a normal crange. It is just the opposite of Prak¨ti. Disequilibrium of Dh¢tu is abnormality or Vik¢ra and the process by which this state develops is Vik¨ti. In Maulika Siddh¢nta, it refers to the sixteen products which arise from Avyakta and Mah¢na. See Prak¨ti also.
15.Vik¨ti Vi¾ama Samav¢yaK¢yacikits¢ An abnormal or irregular combination arising due to combination of particles, molecules which are mutually not alike. The net result of such combinations is variations and emergence of new properties which are not similar to the combining molecules. For example, the toxic effect of honey and Gh¨ta when combined in equal quantity, where as in other ratios they have a synergistic action.
16.VilepiBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Thick gruel of rice. One of the Pathya Kalpan¢s prepared by cooking coarsely ground rice with four parts of water till rice grains turn soft. Consistency of Vilepi is thick and it should have less water and more “Siktha' or rice particles
17.Viml¢pana¹alyaTa¼tra A method to dissolve the inflammatory lesions. Sixth of the sixty measures for treatment of a Vra´a (wound). Literally it means application of gentle pressure by finger, thumb or bamboo stick on an inflammed swelling which is hard and mildly tender.
18.Vip¢kaDravyagu´a ''Vi' stands for specific and ''Paka' stands for digestion. The term literally stands for metabolism and in ¡yurveda, denotes the action of ingested material at the end of the three stages of digestive process and assimilation. Digestion is bio-transformation of substances in respect of form as well as Rasa; and Vip¢ka is that type of digestion which may be taken as transformation of ingested material into a different substance with different Rasa. Three and two types of Vip¢ka are propounded on basis of ''Rasa Paka' (transformation in Rasas) & Bh¦t¢gnip¢ka (transformation in properties of Bh¦t¢) as Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour), Ka°u (bitter) Vip¢kas and Guru (heavy) and Laghu (light) Vip¢ka.
19.VirecanaK¢yacikits¢ Second of the five Pa®cakarma procedures. It is the therapy to pacify the Pitta
20.Vi¾aDravyagu´a Literally the term means a poisonous substance. Any substance in food or enviroment which is capable of depleting Ojas or the vital strength of the body is called a Vi¾a as such a Dravya has pharmacodynamical properties which are exactly antagonistic to those of Ojas. These are Laghu (light), Ruk¾a (dry/ non-unctuous), ¡ºu (fast acting), Viºada (clear) Vyav¢yi (quickly absorbed), T¤k¾´a (sharp/irritant), Vik¢s¤ (causing depression & slackness), S¦k¾ma (penetrating/fine), U¾´a (hot), & Avyakta Rasa (the one which does not have a specific Rasa). Others include Chedana (desaturating/cleansing), Madak¢r¤ (intoxicating), ¡gneya (hot & burning), J¤vitahara (fatal) and Yogav¢h¤ (potentiating/ synergistic). See Ojas also.
21.ViºadaDravyagu´a One of the twenty pharmacological properties representing ''clarity'. It has been described as the property which removes sliminess of the Dravya and makes it clear. It arises from P¨thv¤, V¢yu, Teja and ¡k¢ºa Mah¢bh¦ta.
22.Vi¾am¢gniK¢yacikits¢ / Kriy¢º¢r¤ra An imbalanced state of Ja°har¢gni arising due to vitiated V¢ta. Vi¾ama stands for irregular and in this state the Agni is irregular and fitful so that sometimes the digestion is proper and the other, food remains undigested and produces distension of abdomen, spasm, constipation or loose stools.
23.VisraDravyagu´a The word depicts the smell of raw meat and it is one of the natural properties of Pitta Do¾a.
24.Visr¢va´a¹alyaTa¼tra The term literally means ''to allow to flow'. The ninth of the sixty procedures propounded for treating a Vra´a (wound), it stands for blood letting. Prescribed in an inflammed and oedematous wound (¹othayukta Vra´a). It is carried out through multiple punctures, application of leeches and venesection etc
25.V¨¼ha´aK¢yacikits¢ Means ''to nourish' or to increase the mass. It is one of the six basic therapeutic measures and arises due to ''Guruta' or the virtue of heaviness in Dravya. The things which are heavy on digestion, oily (Snigdha), sweet ((Madhura) or cold (¹¤ta) in temprament have high calorific value and are thus anabolic and therefore increase the bulk of tissue. This type of treatment has been advocated in a K¨ºa (cachexic). Anuv¢sana Basti has a similar effect.
26.V¨¾yaK¢yacikits¢ Represents the one that nourishes. The drugs, dietary regimen and lifestyles that are nourishing and promote virility are V¨¾ya i.e. beneficial for V¢j¤kara´a. For e.g. Konch seeds (Mucuna prurita)
27.Vy¢dhiK¢yacikits¢ Stands for ''diseased state'. It has been defined as a state in which both the body and mind are subjected to pain and misery or a state which proves to be a source of torment or pain to the person. It has been described using various synonymns like ¡maya (arising from ¡ma), Gada (arising from multiple causes), ¡ta¼ka ( tormenter), Yak¾m¢ (syndrome or a symptom complex e.g. R¢jayak¾m¢)), Jvara (raises the body temperature and torments the psyche),Vik¢ra (Vik¨ti or a state of functional imbalance), Roga (the one producing Ruja or pain), P¢pm¢ (a consequence of sins), Dukha (misery) and Ab¢dha (bounds the mind and body).
28.Vy¢dhisa¬karaK¢yacikits¢ Means existence of more than one disease
29.Vy¢nav¢yu Kriy¢º¢r¤ra One of the five subtypes of of V¢ta Do¾a. It is dispersed in the whole body and controls all the voluntary and involuntary movements and governs the circulation. The Rasa Dh¢tu (plasma) is continously circulated throughout the body being propelled by Vy¢na V¢yu and it thus nourishes the whole body.
30.Vyav¢y¤Dravyagu´a A substance which is quickly absorbed. One of the phamacodynamical actions of drug. The drug which first gets diffused in the body and thereafter undergoes digestion is Vyav¢y¤ e.g. Bh¢¬ga or Cannabis sativa and Ahiphena (exudate of Papaver somniferum).
1.Yak¨ta

K¢yacikits¢ / Kriy¢º¢r¤ra Sa¼sk¨ta term for Liver. One of the fifty six Pratya¬ga or organs in the body. Regarded as one of the principal organs i.e. Ko¾°h¢¬ga in ¡yurveda. Apart from being described as the principle organ for digestion and metabolism, controlling the digestive fire (Agni), it has also been specifically mentioned as the seat / receptacle of blood (Rakt¢ºaya). Along with Pl¤ha, it is regarded as the site of Ra¼jaka Pitta, the form of Pitta , responsible for conversion of Rasa to Rakta. Located on the right side of abdomen, its enlargement (Yak¨ta V¨ddhi) has also been categorized as one of the eight deadly abdominal disorders (Udara Roga).
2.Yak¨taMaulika Siddh¢nta Yama are the social do's and dont's or the codes of conduct to be followed in a society. These have been prescribed by P¢ta®jali and the other Hatha Yog¤s in A¾°¢¬ga Yoga. These are Ahimsa (non-violence or non-injury), Satya (truthfulness), Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmacarya (celibacy) and ''Aparigraha (non-hoarding of things).
3.Ya¼tra

Rasaº¢stra/ ¹alya/ ¹¢l¢kya Means an equipment or apparatus. 1. In Rasaº¢stra, refers to the equipments used to extract, purify, control and potentiate P¢rada and make it suitable for consumption and achieving salvation or transformaton of metals into gold. 2. In ¹alya and ¹¢l¢kya Ta¼tra, refers to surgical instruments used in various procedures. See Annex-1
4.Y¢pya RogaK¢yacikits¢ Literally, it signifies a treatment which relieves or soothes the symptoms of disease but does not offer a cure. A palliative disease is the one which is not completely curable, occurs in paroxyms and in acute or aggravated state, its sign and symptoms can be subsided by use of Upaºaya.These type of diseases are supposed to have a life long affinity and affilct the person at different intervals or when aggravated by improper in diet or daily regimens.
5.Yoga

Maulika Siddh¢nta The term is derived from root 'Yuj' and literally it means a link ; to add or to join. Yoga is a progressive method of self realization and linking the soul to the supersoul or Param¢tm¢. It is one of the six systems of theist philosophy of India, also known as Darºana. It is a practical and spiritual science. References are found in Ved¢s, Pur¢´as and other traditional texts of India. Mahar¾i P¢ta®jali compiled various references about Yoga and systematically codified in the form of Yoga S¦tr¢s. According to him Yoga is a means of modification of mental activities or afflictions (Yogaºcittav¨tti Nirodha). There are eight limbs of the Yoga called as A¾°¢¬ga Yoga 1.Yama (social do’s and don’ts), 2. Niyama (personal do’s and don’ts), 3. ¡sana (psycho-physical postures), 4. Pr¢´¢y¢ma (regulation of breathing), 5. Praty¢h¢ra (withdrawal of the senses), 6. Dh¢ra´a (concentration), 7. Dhy¢na (meditation), 8. Sam¢dhi (Culmination or unification of individual soul with the universal soul or to establish one self with the universal consciousness).
6.Yogav¢h¤Dravyagu´a A drug or drug vehicle which carries and accentuates the effects of the original drug to which it is added without undergoing any change in its natural properties. These drugs are employed as drug adjuvants or vehicles or as Anup¢na owing to their S¦k¾ma,Vyav¢y¤ & Vik¢s¤ Gu´a.
7.YuktiK¢yacikits¢ Means the ''rationale' or ''a planned technique'. An argument becomes an inference when it is supported by a rational approach and this rational approach is Yukti. It has been included as one of the methods of investigation. In ¡yurveda, it has been described as 'planning of therapy with due consideration of body, Do¾a & D¦¾ya (the vitiator & the vitiated) etc. In K¢yacikits¢, it refers to undersatanding and visualizing the entities which combine in infinite ways to produce a diseased state and to plan a suitable therapy for its elimination.
8.Yoga BastiK¢yacikits¢ Eight days regimen of Basti treatment consisting of five Anuv¢sana and three ¡sth¢pana Basti in ratio of 1:3:3:1, with one Anuv¢sana initially and at the end and Anuv¢sana alternating with ¡sth¢pana in between. It pacifies vitiated V¢ta.
9.Yuktik¨ta BalaK¢yacikits¢ One of the three types of ¹¢r¤rika Bala or natural power of resistance. It refers to the enhancement of body's resistance against disease through good nutrition, exercise, restorative treatments and Ras¢yana and practising the right codes of conduct which strengthen the person spiritually.
10.Yuktivy¢p¢ºraya Cikits¢K¢yacikits¢ Literally means ''a planned therapy'. It stands for planning of therapy, the diet, drugs and lifestyle with due consideration of body, Do¾a & D¦¾ya (the vitiator & the vitiated) etc. See Yukti also.
11.Y¦¾aBhai¾ajya Kalpan¢ Soup prepared from pulses, especially lentils, in ratio of 1:16 with water or medicated liquids, with flavouring agents and clarified butter (K¨tay¦¾a) or without flavouring agents (Ak¨tay¦¾a). Vegetables and meat may be added but rice is not added. Its consistency is adjustable.














































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